Choosing the best package variable

The variables in package construction are :

a) Cone taper

The steeper the cone taper the greater the freedom of yarn withdrawal and therefore a reduced tendencies to peak tension. But as the cone angle is increased there is a strong possibility of slough off at high unwinding speed  So proper selection of taper must be made for the end use.

e.g. In knitting the winding speed is slow .and uniform and yarn should be capable of being unwound at low tension. Hence a steeper cone angle may be suitable.

For selecting best taper, cones with different taper should be wound and should be unwound under similar conditions as it s end use the taper that gives minimum stops due to slough off and peak tension is the best paper for that end use.

B: Package length and diameter:-

For optimum continuity of yarn supply in the subsequent process to winder one would think to go for longer package with grater diameter. so tests are conducted in which packages are wound with different package length and diameter combinations. they are then unwound under similar conditions of the subsequent process and the unwinding characteristics is studied. The package length and diameter range(empty PKG to full PKG) that gives the best unwinding characteristics such as uniform unwinding tension,minimum tension picks, slough off should be selected.

C:-winds per(single) traverse.:

The characteristic of package mainly by the change in winds per double traverse are:

1package density

2:package stability and characteristics such as tension peaks,slough off etc.

the no of winds per single traverse for a given package length decides angle of wind with law wind the angle is more and visa versa. Low wind means less coils in each layer.

In winding a dye package few wind is used to get openness required for easier and free flow of dye liquid.

For knitting purpose relatively low wind should be used. low wind gives higher coil angle and the degree of yarn across face of package is minimized so yarn unwinding at low tension becomes possible.



Among the various types of knot, the weaver’s knot and the fisherman’s knot, illustrated in Figure 1, are the two types that may be used. The latter is suitable for most yarns. The weaver’s knot is more appropriate for short-staple yarns, as it is a smaller knot, but it slips more easily when under tension.


FIGURE  1:-Fisherman’s and weaver’s knots.

The advantage of a knot is that its strength will be several times that of the yarn strength so, if properly tied, it gives reliability to the piecing. However, the knot has many disadvantages for the end user of the yarn and may be seen as “one fault replacing a worst fault.” Its main drawback is size, i.e., its thickness and tails. The weaver’s knot is two to three times the yarn thickness; the fisherman’s knot is three to four times as large. Often, therefore, it may be preferable to accept a thick place in the yarn as a compromise on the final fabric quality, even if it is of comparable thickness, since no tail ends will be present and, as it is less firm than the knot, it could be less visible in the fabric. In processes subsequent to winding, knots can be problematic. When passing at high speed through a tension device (e.g., a disc tensioner), a knot can give rise to a sudden high peak tension, causing a yarn break. Although smaller and hence preferable for finer yarns, the weaver’s knot is susceptible to untying when tensioned. In weaving, then, the alternating stresses on the warp yarn can cause slipped knots, especially with plied yarns. With densely woven fabrics, knots and tails can rub neighboring warp ends, hampering shedding and causing yarn breaks. The size of the knot can disturb weft insertion on air-jet looms, leading to fabric faults, and, in knitting, difficulty in passing a knot through needles can cause holes in the fabric because of dropped stitches or needle breaks.

The development of the splice has made a major reduction in the size of pieced ends and has therefore eliminated many of the processing difficulties mentioned above and greatly improved fabric quality. Consequently, splicing is seen as the industry standard and, although not all spun yarns can be spliced, the great majority of winding machines are fitted with automatic splicers.


The primary purpose of sizing is to produce warp yarns that will weave satisfactorily without suffering any consequential damage due to abrasion with the moving parts of the loom. The other objective, though not very common in modern practice, is to impart special properties to the fabric, such as weight, feel, softness, and handle. However, the aforementioned primary objective is of paramount technical significance and is discussed in detail herein. During the process of weaving, warp yarns are subjected to considerable
tension together with an abrasive action. A warp yarn, during its passage from the weaver’s beam to the fell of the cloth, is subjected to intensive abrasion against the whip roll, drop wires, heddle eyes, adjacent heddles, reed wires, and the picking element, as shown in Fig.1 . The intensity of the abrasive action is especially high for heavy sett fabrics. The warp yarns may break during the process of weaving due to the complex mechanical actions consisting of cyclic extension, abrasion, and bending. To prevent warp yarns from excessive breakage under such weaving conditions, the threads are sized to impart better abrasion resistance and to improve yarn strength. The purpose of sizing is to increase the strength and abrasion resistance of the yarn by encapsulating the yarn with a smooth but tough size film. The coating of the size film around the yarn improves the abrasion resistance and protects the weak places in the yarns from the rigorous actions of the moving loom parts.



Fig 1:- Parts of the loom and major abrasion points.

The functions of the sizing operation are
1. To lay in the protruding fibers in the body of the yarn and to cover weak places by encapsulating the yarn by a protective coating of the size film. The thickness of the size film coating should be optimized. Too thick a coating will be susceptible to easy size shed-off on the loom.

2. To increase the strength of the spun warp yarn without affecting its extensibility. This is achieved by allowing the penetration of the size into the yarn. The size in the yarn matrix will tend to bind all the fibers together, as shown in Fig. 4.18. The increase in strength due to sizing is normally expected to be about 10 to 15% with respect to the strength of the unsized yarn. Excessive penetration of the size liquid into the core of the yarn is not desirable because it affects the flexibility of the yarn.


Fig2 : -Fiber–size binding in a yarn (not to scale).

3. To make a weaver’s beam with the exact number of warp threads ready for weaving.


Fig.3 Schematics showing size distribution; (a) too much penetration, no surface coating; (b) too much penetration, more size added to provide surface coating; (c) too little penetration, no anchoring of yarn structure; (d) optimal distribution.

Figure 3 illustrates various possible conditions that may occur in practice depending upon the properties of the size employed. This emphasizes the importance of an optimal balance between the penetration of the size into the yarn and providing a protective coating around the yarn, as shown in Fig. 3d. The flow properties of the size liquid and the application temperature have important effects on the distribution of the size within the yarn structure. More size at the periphery of the yarn will tend to shed off on the loom under the applied forces because the size is not well anchored on the fibers. Too much penetration, as shown in Fig. 3a, may leave too little size around the yarn surface to protect it against the abrasive action. To rectify such a condition, a higher size add-on is required to provide the required protective surface coating.

Yarn Preparatory process

The yarn is received from spinning department in the form of ring frame bobbins or hanks to make it usable on loom it must be converted into suitable form i.e. wrap & weft as discussed earlier.

These intermediate process between spinning & weaving on loom, which converts the yarn in suitable form that can be used for weaving, are called Weaving Preparetory Process.

The process used in the manufacture of WRAP & WEFT are called ‘ Wrap Preparatory Process’ & ‘ Weft Preparatory Process’ respectively.

Wrap Preparatory Process

The process to be used depend upon the type & quality of yarns, the type of fabric to be produced, & also on the equipment & other facilities available in the mill. The process flow chart is given below which shows the various stages of wrap preparation. The solid lines indicate the basic process most commonly used & the dotted lines indicate some additional processes required for different types of fabrics.


Windings : In the process, the yarn from a number of ring frame bobbins or hanks is put in a long continuous length on to a bigger packages such as Wraper’s bobbin, cone or cheese. During this process, the objectionable faults are removed from yarn. For the use of dyed yarn, ring frame bobbins may be taken to reeling process to obtain hanks. These hanks are dyed 2 & then sent to winding. The yarn is dyed in cone/cheese form also. Thus, winding packages ( wrapers’ bobbin, corn or cheese ) are taken to next process of wraping i.e. Direct Wraping or Sectional Wraping.

Wraping :


The object of wraping is to collect a predetermined number of single end packages (winding package from which a single thread comes out on unwinding) & convert it into sheet form with ends uniformly spaced & wind a specified length on to wraper’s beam. Thus at the end of process, we get a multiend package (package which on unwinding give no. of ends) i.e. wraper’s beam wound with a sheet of uniformly spaced (hundreds of) ends of specified length. To have a sheet, the wraper’s beam is subjective to dyeing to get dyed wrap.


Sectional wraping consists of winding of wraping of number of sections, each wound with a (narrow) sheet of uniformly spaced, predetermined number of ends of equal length side by side. on collecting ends from all sections, we get required number of ends required for weaving. Beaming consists of winding sheet, obtained by collecting ends from al sections, on weaver’s beam. Thus, at the end of the process, we get weaver’s beam which may be sent to loom or for drawing-in.

Sizing: Wrap thrads are subjeced to considerable stresses, strains & rubbing action duration weaving. So wrap threads are impregnated with size whose main constituent is on adhesive substance. The size binds the fibres in the yarn surface to resist stresses, strains & rubbling action without breaking. At the back of sizing machine, wrap sheets form number of wraper’s beam are combined to obtain a single sheet containing required number of ends for weaving. This sheet is impregnated with size, dried & wound on weaver’s beam. Thus, at the end of sizing, we get weaver’s beam which may be sent for drawing in or to loom.

Drawing-in & denting :- This process consists of passing ends of wrapsheet from weaver’s beam through heald eyes of healdshaft & throught dents of reed. On loom, if exactly the same fabric is to be prodused after a weaver’s beam is exhausted, then the new sheet of wrap threads is connected end by end to the old sheet. This operation is called tying-in or twisting depending upon the method of joining. Thus, this process need only weaver’s beam wound with wrap. But if other type of fabric is to be prodused after a weaver’s beam is exhausted, then we need weaver’s beam with wrap drawn & dented. Old beams with its heald shafts & reed is removed & new beam is & heald shafts & reed reset on the loom.

Wrap Preparatory Process


The processes of Reeling,Hank dyeing,Winding & cone/cheese dyeing are same as discussed earlier.The end package of weft ring spinning frames are directly used in the shuttle.This type of weft is known as direct weft.The yarn from ring frame bobbins is subjected to Winding/Cone or Cheese dyeing.The yarn from bigger packages(Cone/Cheese or Warper’s bobbin) (from which objectionable faults are removed/may be dyed too) is wound on to pirns by means of pirn winding.These pirns are supplied to shuttle looms.

The winding packages(Cone/Cheese) are supplied to Automatic Shuttle Looms fitted with Unifil loom winder or to shuttle looms(such as gripper,air jet,water jet or rapier).

Quality requirements of Warp and Weft in weaving


– For maximum production (per loom and per operative).

– For best quality.

– To achieve this quality of warp and weft should be good. Poor quality of warp and weft causes frequent breakages. So loom has to be stopped frequently which badly affects productivity. Poor quality of warp and weft can lead to production of fabric with inferior quality. SO FOR THE BEST RESULT IN WEAVING , THE BEST QUALITY OF WARP AND WEFT IS THE MUST.


1. To produce fabric of uniform quality, the tension of warp threads across the width should be same i.e if there are 500 ends, tension of all of them should be same. Similarly the tension of warp sheet as it is unwound from weaver’s beam should also be same.

2. The end should be free from any place that can cause breakage during weaving or can give bad appearance to the cloth. E.g.

(a)A weak place can cause breakage during weaving.

(b)A thick place can cause breakage and give bad appearance.

(c)A thin place can cause bad appearance. Particularly thinner place continuing over a long distance, say 1 or 2m will give bad appearance, as in that portion a fine crack like appearance may be seen.

3. During weaving warp threads are kept under considerable tension and are subjected to the abrasive action of the healds, other moving parts and also of the neighbouring threads of warp. The warp threads should be strong enough to resist these actions without breaking.


The weft is supplied to weaving by using any of the following,

(a) For shuttle looms weft is wound on pirns. The pirn fits in to a shuttle. The shuttle is projected into the shed. So supply of weft is in the form of pirn wound with weft.

(b) For shuttle looms fitted with “UNFIL” loom winder, pirn winding is done by a special mechanism on loom itself. So supply of weft is in form of cones or cheese.

(c) For looms in which insertion of weft is not by shuttle carrying pirn are called shuttle-less looms. In these looms (generally) weft insertion takes place from one side of the loom. The weft is withdrawn from the packages such as cones or cheeses and it is inserted into the shed by some carrier (gripper, rapier or air jet or water jet).

As Stated above pirn or cone or cheese can be the package of weft supply. Here also the unwinding tension should be as uniform as possible to produce the fabric of uniform quality and also any factor, such as slough off, entanglement etc., that can cause breakage of weft, should be taken care off. The weft thread should be free from weak places, thick places, thin places, etc., that can cause breakage or give bad appearance to the fabric

Technologies for the clothing industry

Synergies among makers of machinery, as well as systems and plants and the clothing industry aim both to the optimisation of the garment and to its suitability to be used according the customer’s demand.

As a consequence organisation of the production on one side, methods applied, machines, and component materials (from the fabric to the accessories) play a synergetic role which determines the product quality.

Organisation and information management, logistics, as well as specific hardware and software packages for CAD and CAM systems are representative of the high technological level offered by the Italian manufacturers

Receipt of goods

At their reception, all pieces must be immediately provided with a bar code with the following information: fabric variant, colour variant, real fabric width, total length, net length after detection of flaw lengths, entry date into the warehouse.

Today also the clothing manufacturing companies need to have a range of equipment for printing labels and bar codes. These printers through a serial or parallel port can be connected to any system.

Fabric inspection and detection of faults

Fabric quality control involves the control of a series of characteristics, such as dimensional stability, shade uniformity, colour stability at fusing and ironing temperatures, light and stain removal fastness, weft squareness, consistent tensile strength, wear resistance, resistance to seam sliding pressure. Finishing products must not hinder fusing, and must not cause fabric stripiness and creases; selvedge must be regular, not too loose, not too tight or too large.

To make these controls easier Italian inspection machine makers offer a series of options, suitable both for woven and knitted/elasticised fabrics. Programmable automatic winding machines are also offered for cutting optimisation.

An interesting development is a final control for measuring and controlling colour directly on any type of inspection table for any type of textile product. Thanks to an advanced system of colorimetric quality control an exact interpretation and evaluation of the readings is provided. Advantages include automatic calculation of tolerances, instrumental control of colour differences (center/selvedges, header/end), no need of tests for sample sets, and speeding up of the control process.

Piece transport from storehouse to spreading department

A keen problem is “what to do” with the flaw lengths appearing during spreading. A solution is the CAD marking system, which is able to study and calculate the various possibilities for fault cutting-out, and the number of superimposed fabric layers needed after flaw removing. This information, together those concerning length of marking, number of layers for each single step, size, fabric/colour variant, is to be stored in the central computer for subsequent use not only by the spreader but also the robotised truck (which has to draw pieces from the warehouse), and the carousel for feeding individual piece to the spreader.

Many options of spreading equipment provide flexibility in fabric handling, and are available from Italian manufacturers, either with cradle or programmed loading of the rolls without the help of the chuck.

Special solutions are offered for tubular fabrics, big rolls up to 400 kg, home linen. A high tech solution is a two-roll spreader, which may be used to obtain the multilayer stack for laser cutting the car safety air bags. This technology can be also applied for simultaneous spreading of the three layers composing the tie material or to couple already during preading filling and fabric of windcheaters.

New fabric spreading technologies are becoming popular: these technologies are the natural answer to a more and more pressing market request, that is tailor made clothing. Customers who are no more satisfied of already made-up suits are increasing more and more; they require tailor made clothing with fabrics and sizes chosen by them. To satisfy these requirements, new completely automated lines are being planned for the motion of fabric rolls, spreading and cutting of predetermined length fabrics which will feed the systems for shape cutting. These lines, inserted in CIM systems, allow the making up of “tailor made” suits at low costs and in short time.

Pattern grading and marking

For these two operations, in the sector of CAD for the clothing industry, a wide range of the most recent and known software packages has been developed enabling high operating speed thanks to personal computers of the latest generation. The system is composed of a workstation with digitizer table, where the identification of the pattern design is performed. The subsequent step is carried out on a workstation for the construction of the basic model and the marking. After completing these operations, the system is arranged for interfacing with automatic cutting.

Cutting systems and cutting machines

For the cutting room various systems are offered so to meet the most diverse requirements not only of the medium and big clothing manufacturers, but also for small sized companies. The wide range of machines offered can handle the cutting of single-layer fabrics up to 15.5 cm stocked piles.

Sewing machines

The sector of sewing machines shows continuous updating and improvement. The trend is towards the use of more and more flexible and automatic sewing units able to perform some sequential sewing operations. On the other hand there is still the need to manufacture low cost sewing machines for the developing countries. Since present day fashion needs lead more and more to continuous model changes, clothing manufacturers very often have to increase the number of machines, with consequent high investment. This problem finds a solution in adopting a flexible modular system putting together three basic units: a cylinder bed sewing machine, a cuttingsewing machine and a flat a flat bed unit that can be completed by a series of universal kit for loop stitch goods (used for underwear, corsetry and knitwear). Advantages claimed for this system consist in: a complete production system that carries out sewing operations with very high performance, possibility of modifying the initial configuration, adapting it to new production needs, possibility of technological updating without having to replace the machine, justifiable investment also in case of fashion changes. A machine with shortened cylinder bed on the left of the needles and differential feed is offered for top stitching of pre-existent seams. A new subclass unit for top stitching the seams on medium-heavy knitwear has been prepared for smoothly sew crossed seams with high thickness. It equipped with thread cutting device. Also launched a brand new unit for flat topstitched assembly seams with bartacking on light and medium outerwear in a single operation.

The automatic units adopting a multistitch method allow to reduce operation times by about 50/60%, reduce the operation steps and hence the dwelling time of the semifinished garment in the cutting room. A series of units carries out the flat and topstitched assembly seams in one single phase without interruption. They are equipped with two heads, the first one with horizontal needle bar for the assembly seams, the second one with vertical needle bar for topstitching. The sewing system adopts a new method for the introduction of the fabric into the automatic unit. In fact the two fabric edges to be assembled are presenting themselves in open state, with the right side turned towards the operator, making easier the coupling of striped and chequered fabrics. For attaching pockets on shirts, working clothes and pyjamas etc., machinery with flexible systems controlled by microchips that can fold pockets, sewing them, and pile the garments in an automatic cycle. These machines offer high productivity, constant quality and the possibility to programme various sewing patterns that can be adapted to the different pocket models. The wide range of models offered include high frequency “sewing” systems for synthetic fabrics, which fuse by means of an 800 W ultrasound generator and a vibrating ultrasound group. The fusion speed can programmed up to 50 m/min and is driven by means of a treadle.


Quilts are a popular home decoration element. Electronics broadens potential of quilting machines making them more versatile. An Italian company is engaged in the production of a series of models which mount a serious challenge to machine embroidery. The newest models of quilters, can operate at around 1,000 stitches/minute and are built with a quilting width up to 114 ins (290 cm). With three needle bars the patterning potential is immense. Giant rotating hooks with 700-mm bobbins are used in this machine which has
tack and jump mode. This is a means of still further creating more interesting surface effects.

Developments on these machines is aimed to a system of automatically cutting embroidery threads, and this will serve to conserve thread when a needles produces a discrete pattern and then needs to travel to a different position to perform its next task.


The Schiffli embroidery machines are now offered with computer control. The design preparation for multihead embroidery machines is today a normal practice. Besides punching of patterns on graphic screens and advanced systems for data processing of machine programs, one can use laser discs containing 20,000 patterns each, and affording to  immediately write the embroidery design on the machine disc, so that production can start at once.

Knitwear linking

The knitwear linking is carried out exclusively to sew full-fashioned knitted goods which are loaded onto pins so that the ribs of both webs perfectly match thus avoiding the risk of sliding.

Linking machines can be quipped with one or two needles and hook- or straight-shaped needles (different stitch formation obtained). Linking machines can have internal needle (the stitch is loaded from the plain side) or external needle (the stitch is loaded on the reverse side). The working speed can reach 1,500 stitches per minute; the quantity of needles per inch ranges from seven to sixteen; in special machines it can range from 2 to max 24 needles per inch. It’s also worth mentioning that some knitwear linking machines are equipped with microcomputer to synchronise all the speed values: adjusting sewing speed, prefeeding of rib borders, and positive drive pullers, which are controlled individually by conventional motors, in order to allow accurate alignment of the ribs.

Ironing and pressing

This sector includes a great number of units that are used for different purposes, and sees the leadership of Italian makers.

There are automatic, pneumatic and rotary ironing presses for all pieces of clothing; ironing systems for intermediate and final ironing include pneumatic toppers for trousers ironing, steaming dummies, finishing cabinets, heated vacuum boards, and the blowironing units.

All ironing machines and systems are now equipped with electronic systems so that crucial parameters such as speed, temperature and pressure may be set. The safety systems installed have been further improved for a better safeguard of the staff operating on the machines.


The importance of finishing is becoming more and more crucial in the textile/clothing sector thanks also to the new “informal comfort” standard suggested by the fashion dictations in the last few years which started in the past with a new kind of treatment for jeans. Now the finished garment needs to be a “high-profile” piece of clothing not only from a purely technical point of view but also in terms of esthetical content, which must be in line with the visual, hand, and colour trends.

A wide and continuously evolving range of washers and tumblers especially studied for garment washing, dyeing and drying have been developed to allow many kinds of treatments such as bleaching and stone washing, and to obtain delavé and used look. Also worth remembering is the continuous evolution of drum type washing machines and the driers, available in a vast range of models specifically designed for washing, dyeing and drying operations on garments.

Folding and packaging

At the end of the production line, garments are arranged with reference tags, put into a bag and packed according to the forwarding specifications. These operations are carried out by means of folding and packing machines (for shirts, home linen, and underwear the complete process of folding and packing is carried out automatically in only one operation). A series of other systems are used to pile-up, pack, wrap-up and tie-up the garments.

Double-layer fabrics produced on the face-to-face principle

Face-to-face weaving represents an alternative method of manufacture of the cut warp fabrics in which two fabrics are woven simultaneously and the pile is produced without the aid of wires. Two separate ground fabrics with a space between them, each with its own warp and weft, are woven on the unstitched double fabric principle, while the pile warp threads interlace alternately with the picks of both fabrics and thus are common to both. The distance between the ground fabrics is regulated according to the required length of pile and as the textures pass forward the pile threads extending between them are cut by means of a transversely reciprocating knife during the weaving process. Upper fabric is thus formed the lower fabric with the pile facing up, and the upper fabric with a similar pile facing down. The fabrics pass in contact with separate take-up rollers and are wound on two fabrics. Fig.1 illustrates double-layer fabrics produced on the face-to-face principle


Fig. 1: Double-layer fabrics produced on the face-to-face principle

Terry Fabrics

The terry pile is a class of warp pile structure in which certain warp ends are made to form loops on the surface of the fabric. The loops may be formed on one side only or on both
sides of the fabric thus producing single-sided and double-sided structures as shown in Fig. 1 & 2 respectively. A high tension is applied to a ground warp and a very low tension to
a pile warp. In traditional terry weaving, by means of a special device on the weaving machine, two picks are inserted at a variable distance ‘‘the loose pick distance’’ from the fabric fell. the two picks are beaten up short of the true fabric fell and produce a temporary false fell as indicated schematically in Fig.1 A and B. The loose pick distance is varied according to the desired loop height. On the third pick of the group full beat-up takes place the three picks being pushed forward together to the true fell position. During this action the three picks are capable of sliding between the ground ends, which are kept very taut, as depicted in Fig. 1 C, D and E.image

A. 1st. temporary false fell
B. 2nd temporary false fell
C. 3rd pick of the group
D. Whole group is pushed into
the fell point
E. Full beat-up

Fig. 1: Phases of the pile formation on terry weaving machine

It can be therefore determined some principles:
1. The smallest wefts group is three wefts.
2. The pile yarns must be always intersected with the second weft of the wefts group.
3. The warp shedding must be closed during beating-up of the third pick

The exact relation of the weft to the two warps and the principle of loop formation is depicted by means of the weft section in Fig. 2. The broken vertical lines CC, DD, and EE divide the first, second and third picks into repeating groups of three, line EE indicating the position of the fell of the fabric. On the right of the diagram, a group of three picks, which compose a repeat, is represented previous to being beaten up to the fell of the fabric. The ground threads G1, G2 , and the face and back pile threads P1 and P2 are shown connected by lines with the respective spaces in the corresponding weave given in Fig. 2. In weaving the fabric the group warp beam carrying the threads G1 and G2, is heavily tensioned. As stated earlier so that these threads are held tight all the time. The picks 16 and 17 are first woven into the proper sheds, but are not beaten fully up to the fell of the fabric at the time of insertion in their sheds; but when the pick No. 18 is inserted the mechanisms are so operated that the three picks are driven together into the fabric at the fell EE. During the beating up of the third pick the pile warp threads P1 and P2 are either given in slack, or are placed under very slight tension.


Fig. 2: Structure of three-pick terry, pile on both sides

The picks 16 and 17 are in the same shed made by the tight ground threads G1 and G2, which, therefore, offer no obstruction to the two picks being driven toward at the same time with the third pick. The pile threads P1 and P2, on the other hand, change from one side of the fabric to the other between the picks 16 and 17, and they are, therefore, gripped at the point of contact with the two picks. As the three picks are beaten up this point of contact is moved forward to the fell of the fabric with the result that the slack pile warp threads are drawn forward and two horizontal rows of loops are formed one projecting from the upper and the other from the lower surface of the fabric in the manner  represented in Fig. 3. Setting of shedding level of the pile and ground shafts is shown in Fig. 2.15.


Fig.3: Diagram of three-pick terry design, pile on both sides.


Fig. 4: Setting of shedding level of the pile and ground shafts

Main methods for the production of terry fabrics

The production of terry fabrics is a complex process and is only possible on specially equipped weaving machines. Terry weaving machines are constructed so as to impart a loop
to warp yarns via weft yarns which are beaten up at a beating-up station to form a fabric. Two warps are processed simultaneously, the ground warp, with tightly tensioned ends and the pile warp, with lightly tensioned ends. In general, the reed has two beat-up positions which do not impose alternative movements to the warp, fabric and various components of the weaving machine. Special weaving methods enable loops to be performed with the lightly tensioned warp ends on the fabric surface. Those methods are divided into two mains methods as follows:
Reed control mechanism
Fabric control mechanism.

  • Weaving machine equipped with the reed control mechanism

Reed control mechanism must be used to vary the stroke of the reed to effect partial beat-up of certain picks of weft and full beat up of other picks of weft. Reciprocating motion is applied to a lay beam on which the reed is mounted by a crank arm whose motion is driven by a rotatable driving element. The rotatable driving element is coupled to the crank arm through a mechanical linkage which includes a pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder. The pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder serves to shift the arc of the reed so as to effect partial beat up of certain picks of weft and full beat up of other picks of weft.

Figures 5A and b illustrate a reed control mechanism generally indicated by numeral 1. The reed control mechanism 1 serves to control the reciprocating motion of the reed 2 which is mounted on a lay beam 3. Although not indicated in the figures, the reed 2 and the lay beam 3 extend substantially across the width of the loom. Reciprocating motion is imparted to the reed 2 and the lay beam 3 by a reciprocating motion imparting means here shown as a crank arm 4 which reciprocates about a lay shaft 5. Generally, crank arm 4 is located near the center of the lay beam 3 and the reed 2. The reciprocating movement of the crank arm 4 is driven by a driving element or crank 6 which as shown preferably rotates in the clockwise sense about a shaft crank 7 that is mounted on the loom and extends parallel to lay beam 3 and lay shaft 5. The crank 6 is connected to crank arm 4 through a mechanical linkage 8 which includes a pair of spaced apart longitudinal links 9 and 10 and an interposed adjustable member here shown to be a pneumatic piston-cylinder 11 for controlling the spacing between the longitudinal links 9, 10 and thus the length of the mechanical linkage 8. Of course, the adjustable member may be a hydraulic piston-cylinder instead of pneumatic piston-cylinder 11 or any other such member, such as, for example, an electromagnetically controlled piston-cylinder.

Longitudinal element 9 which is fastened to the piston-rod 12 of the cylinder 11 is pivotally connected to the crank 6 by axle 14. Similarly, longitudinal element 10, which is fastened to the base end 13 of the cylinder 11, is pivotally connected to the crank arm 4 by axle 15. A pressure medium, here shown as compressed air is connected to the cylinder 11 near the base 13. In the Figures, this connection is shown in a schematic manner only, the actual structure being well within the skill of the ordinary worker. The flow of the compressed air from diagrammatically illustrated standard pressure vessel 16 is controlled by diagrammatically illustrated standard timing circuit 18. When the pressure medium stored in vessel 16 enters the cylinder 11, near the base 13 through diagrammatically illustrated inlet 19, the piston-rod 12 is forced outward from the cylinder thereby extending the effective length of mechanical linkage 8.


Fig. 5: Reed control mechanism

A pressure medium, here shown as compressed air is also connected to the cylinder 11 near end 17. The flow of compressed air from diagrammatically illustrated standard pressure
vessel 16′ into the cylinder 11 through diagrammatically illustrated inlet 19′ is regulated by diagrammatically illustrated standard timing circuit 18′. When compressed air enters the
cylinder 11 near end 17, the piston rod 12 is forced inward, thereby shortening the effective length of the mechanical linkage 8.

As previously indicated, the reed control mechanism 1 is intended to enable the reed to perform a three pick terry cycle which involves partial beat up of the first two picks of weft
followed by full beat up of the third pick of weft. The workings of the inventive reed control mechanism 1 can be understood by considering its operation during a single three pick cycle which corresponds to three rotations of the crank 6, one for each pick. Operation of the reed control mechanism 1 during the first two picks is shown in Fig. 5A, and operation of the reed control mechanism 1 during the third pick is shown in Fig. 5B.

Starting from an arbitrary initial position of the reed 2 and associated reed control mechanism 1 which is shown in phantom in Fig. 5A, as the driver element 6 rotates in the clockwise direction about the shaft crank 7, the reed 2 is driven leftward in an arc. The leftward most position of the reed 2 is indicated by position A in Fig. 5A. At this time, the orientation of the associated reed control mechanism 1 is shown in Fig. 5A. As the reed moves leftward through the arc, it carries with it a pick of weft (not shown). As the crank 6 continues in its clockwise rotation returning reed 2 and associated reed control mechanism 1 to the initial position shown in Fig. 5B, the reed 2 moves rightward through its arc leaving the pick of weft behind at position A. Note that position A is separated from the fell of the fabric whose location is schematically illustrated by position B. Thus, there has occurred partial beat up of the first pick of weft. Upon a second rotation of the crank 6, another pick of weft is positioned near position A.

Illustratively, as shown in Fig. 5B, at the start of the third rotation of the crank 6, the piston rod 12 of the cylinder 11 starts to extend outward, thus lengthening the mechanical linkage 8 and causing the arc of the reed 2 to shift leftward in an arc. The leftwardmost position of the reed 2 is indicated by Fig. 5A. As the reed 2 moves leftward through its arc the third pick of weft as well as the first two picks of weft which were previously positioned at A are positioned at position B. Position B is the leftward most position of the reed 2 as it moves through its arc and generally corresponds to the fell of the fabric. When the reed 2 reaches position B, the corresponding orientation of the reed control mechanism 1 is shown by the drawing of Fig. 5C. When this position is reached, the piston rod 12 of the cylinder 11 is maximally extended. Hence, as will be recognized by those of ordinary skill, the height of the terry pile is determined by the difference in position of points A and B. Note that, during the second half of the third rotation of the crank 6, the piston rod of the pneumatic cylinder 11 is forced inward so that the mechanical linkage is shortened and partial beat up of the first pick of the next cycle is effected.

Mechanical linkage 8 also includes continuously adjustable nut 20 for adjusting the relative positions of points A and B to thereby adjust the pile height of the resulting terry fabric. The nut 20 is incorporated as part of the piston-rod 12 and serves as a means for regulating the length of the mechanical linkage 8 during partial beat up steps. Adjustment of the nut 20 results in a leftward or rightward shift of the arc of the reed but does not appreciably change the length of the arc of the reed. When it is desired that there be a relatively short pile height, the nut 20 should be positioned adjacent end 17 of the cylinder 11 during the partial beat up steps. When the nut 20 is so positioned, the movement of the piston rod 12 into the cylinder 11 is limited by the nut. Thus mechanical linkage 8 is relatively long and the corresponding arc of the reed 2 is shifted to the left, thereby giving rise to a relatively small distance between the partially beat up first two picks of the three pick terry cycle (point A) and the fell of the fabric (point B). On the other hand where a relatively large pile height is desired, the nut may be spaced apart from the end 17 of the cylinder 11 during the partial beat up steps in which case movement of the piston-rod 12 into the cylinder is limited only by the geometry of the cylinder. This serves to shift the arc of the reed 2 to the right and results in a relatively long distance between the partially beat up first two picks of the three pick terry cycle (point A) and the fell of the fabric (point B).

  • Weaving machine equipped with the fabric control mechanism

Fabric control mechanism was developed by Sulzer and Dornier companies. Loop formation proceeds according to the principle of fabric control. That is, the reed moves in a conventional manner but the fabric or fabric is periodically moved away from beating-up station by a common movement of the breast beam and temple. Usually, two or three partial beating-ups are carried out after each complete beating-up for a subsequent looping of the pile warp

Fabric control mechanism on Sulzer weaving machine

Referring to Fig. 6, the terry weaving machine is of generally conventional structure. For example, the weaving machine has a ground warp beam 1 from which a plurality of ground
warps 2 extend via a deflecting beam 3 to a whip roll 4 as well as a pile warp beam 5 from which a plurality of pile warps 6 extend via a temple 7 and a resiliently mounted whip roll 10 which is secured to a lever pair 11.


Fig. 6: Loop formation by using fabric control mechanism on Sulzer weaving machine

As indicated, the lever pair 11 is pivotally mounted about a pivot 12 and is biased by a spring 13 against the pile warps 6. In addition, the ground warps 2 and pile warps 6 are guided via warp yarn detectors 14 into a means for forming a shed. This means includes a plurality of heddles 15 which are able to shift the warps into a top shed position and/or a bottom shed position. In addition, a means is provided in the form of a reed 16 for beating up a weft yarn within the shed to a beating-up station to form a fabric or fabric. The machine has also a slide 17 comprised of a temple 8 having a needle roller 18 and a breast beam 19 over which the fabric is guided away from the beating up station. In addition, a needled stepping beam 20, a pressing beam 21, and a temple 9 are provided to guide the fabric onto a fabric beam 22.

As indicated, a means is provided for periodically reciprocating the temple 8 and breast beam 19 to effect a terry weave in the fabric. This means includes a pull link 23 which is connected to the breast beam 19, a pull hook or lever 24 and a cam follower lever 25 which connect the breast beam 19 to a terry cam 26. This cam 26 meshes with a worm drive 28 forming part of a warp beam drive 27. The worm drive 28 also meshes with a toothed annulus 29 of the warp beam 5. In addition, a drive motor 30 is provided for driving the warp beam drive 27. Referring to Fig. 6, a means in the form of a stationary deflecting mechanism 31 is disposed between the reed 16 and temple 8 for narrowing the shed on opposite sides, i.e., from the top and from the bottom, as viewed at least on one edge in order to maintain a tucked-in end of a weft yarn in the shed. During operation of the weaving machine, the terry cam 26 (Fig. 6) acts via the lever 25, hook 24 and link 23 to reciprocate the slide 17 in the direction indicated by the double arrow 33. The fabric 32 thus makes an operative movement (lift) H relative to the beating- up position of the reed

Fabric control mechanism on Dornier weaving machine

Pile formation by using this mechanism is based on the principle of a stable and precise shifting of the beat-up point. Using this principle the fabric is shifted towards the reed by
means of a positively controlled movement of the whip roll 6 and a terry bar together with the temples on the beat-up of the fast pick. The sturdy reed drive is free of play. It provides the necessary precision for the beat-up of the group of picks.

A compact, simplified whip roll system 6 with the warp stop motions arranged on two separate levels improves handling and has a decisive influence on reducing broken ends. Due to a drastic reduction in the number of mechanical components the amount of maintenance required is reduced. With the help of electronics the precision of measuring the Iength of pile yarn is improved. This leads to a better fabric quality due to constant pile height and fabric weight. The weaving process is so exact that precise mirrored patterns are possible and velour weavers experience minimal shearing waste. The tensions of the ground and pile warps 1 and 2 are detected by force sensors 3 and 9 and electronically regulated. In this way warp tension is kept uniform from full to the empty warp beam. To prevent starting marks or pulling back of the pile loops the pile warp tension can be reduced during machine standstill. Fig. 7 illustrates Dornier air-jet terry weaving machine


Fig. 7: Fabric control mechanism on Dornier air-jet weaving machine


Drive and control of weaving machines

The latest weaving machines are equipped with microprocessor or PLC units which ensure continuously the control, the drive and the monitoring of the various machine members and of the various functions.

A variety of electronic devices and sensors permits the collection and the processing in real time of the main production and quality parameters. These parameters can also be recorded and transferred through memory cards to other machines or stored for future use (fig. 1). The control unit can be connected with outer units (terminals, servers, company managing system) to transmit/receive data concerning both the technical and productive management and the economic-commercial management (fig. 2). All this facilitated considerably the weaver’s work in respect to machines of previous generation, and enabled to improve the production yield and the product quality.


Fig. 1 − Board computer equipped with memory card


Fig. 2 − Example of a modern monitoring and control network

The main operations which can be carried out by simply keying in the value of the desired parameter on the keyboard of the electronic control unit are:

• selection and modification of the weft density with running machine, as both the motor driving the take-up roller (sand roll) and the motor driving the warp beam are  electronically controlled and synchronized one another. This permits also to combine a programmed automatic pick finding, obtained through correction programs based on the characteristics of the fabric in production, in order to prevent formation of starting marks (after machine stops); • electronic selection and control of warp tension through a load cell situated on the back rest roller, which last detects continuously the tension value. This permits the processor to control the movements of the warp beam and of the take-up roller, ensuring a constant tension throughout the weaving operation (fig. 3);

• programming of the electronic dobby and of the electronic weft colors selector;

• programming and managing of nozzle pressure and blowing time in air jet weaving machines;

• selection and variation of the working speed, as the machines are provided with a frequency converter (inverter) which permits to modify at will the speed of the driving  synchronous motor;

• statistics;

• monitoring;

• managing/programming of all machine functions.


Fig. 3 − Electronic detecting and control system on thread tension. Setting and modification of tension and weft density directly via board computer

Preparation of weaving machines

To obtain satisfactory weaving performance, it is essential to have not only a correct yarn preparation, but also an efficient organization which permits to have warps available at the right moment, thus avoiding any dead time with style or beam change. All these prerequisites aim at ensuring to the weaving mills a sufficient flexibility and at permitting them to cope promptly with a variable market demand.

Currently several weaving mills have installed weaving machines which enable to perform the quick style change (QSC), leading to a considerable reduction of the waiting time of the machine.

The following chart presents the possible alternatives for the preparation of the weaving machine:

Changing style means producing a new fabric style, weaver’s beam changing means going on weaving the same fabric style just replacing the empty beam with a full beam of same type. Drawing-in consists of threading the warp yarns through the drop wires, the healds and the reed (fig.1). Depending on the styles of the produced fabrics and on the company’s size, this operation can be carried out manually, by drawing-in female workers operating in pairs (a time consuming activity which requires also skill and care), or by using automatic drawing-in machines.


Fig. 1− Drawing-in

Fig. 2 shows one of the most established heald drawing-in machines. The drawing-in begins by placing the weaver’s beam, the harness and the row of healds on the proper anchor brackets, then the drawing-in program is typed in on the computer and the machine is started. A sort of long needle picks up in sequence the threads and inserts them with only one movement into the drop wires, the healds and the reed dents, which are selected each time and lined up to that purpose. The computer controls the different functions and supervises them electronically, ensuring the exact execution of the operation and interrupting it in case of defects. The machine can be used with the usual types of healds, drop wires and reeds and can process a wide range of yarn types and counts, from silk yarns to coarse glass fibre yarns. The drawing-in speed can in optimum conditions exceed 6,000 threads/hour.


Fig 2.: Heddle drawing-in machine

Fig. 30 presents another automatic drawing-in machine which carries out same functions as previous machine, however without needing the weaver’s beam. In fact it is fed by a common cotton twine which it inserts among the various elements of the warp stop motion, of the harness and of the reed according to the program set up on the computer and under its control and supervision. At the end of the drawing-in, the drawn-in devices are moved on the frame of a knotting station in which an automatic warp tying-in machine joins the drawing-in threads together with the threads of the beam. This operation can be made also on board the loom.

Fig 3:- Automatic drawing-in machine (Staubli KK / Korea Branch)

This machine offers the advantage of working always under optimum operating conditions (use of same yarn), independently of the quality of the warp to be prepared and in advance in respect to warping, therefore with higher flexibility. The drawing-in rate can reach 3600 threads/hour. Fig.4  shows a harness and a reed with already drawn-in threads, ready to be brought to the knotting station.


Fig. 4:-  A harness and a reed with drawn-in threads ready to be moved to the knotting station.

The piecing-up of the warp yarns (Fig. 5) permits to the weaving mills which are in a position to use it (not many mills at the moment) to simplify and speed up considerably the loom starting operations in case of warps which were drawn-in or tied-up outside the weaving machine. The warp threads are laid into a uniform layer by the brush roller of the piecing-up machine and successively pieced-up between two plastic sheets respectively about 5 cm and 140 cm wide, both covering the whole warp width.

The plastic sheet can be inserted into the weaving machine simply and quickly, avoiding to group the threads together into bundles; the threads are then pieced-up on the tying cloth of the take-up roller.


Fig. 5 − Piecing-up

If a new drawing-in operation is not necessary (this expensive operation is avoided whenever possible) because no style change is needed, the warp is taken from the beam store and brought directly to the weaving room, where it is knotted on board the loom to the warp prepared with the knotting machine.

As an alternative to the usual knotting on board the loom, the knotting outside the loom or stationary knotting of a new warp with an already drawn-in warp can be carried out in the preparation department. The devices bearing the threads of the old warps are taken from the weaving machine and the knotting can be started in the preparation room under better conditions, leaving the weaving machine free for rapid cleaning and maintenance operations.

The stationary knotting, in particular, takes place in following stages:

• Taking out of the loom the prepared beam with the harness
• Transport of the beam into the weaving preparation department
• Fastening of the heald frames and of the reed on the proper frame
• Passing of the knots by proper drawing
Warp piecing-up
• Temporary maintenance of the new warp with the harness
• Transport of the new warp inclusive of harness with proper carriage
• Loading of the weaving machine and start of the weaving process using plastic sheet (fig.7)
• Weaving


Fig. 6 − A knotting machine in operation on a warp with colour sequence, tensioned on the proper frame.


Fig. 7 − Harness loading in the weaving machine

The automatic knotting machines can process a wide range of yarn types and counts at highly reliable and rapid operating conditions (up to 600 knots/minute), with mechanical or electronic control on double knots and on the sequence of warp patterns in case of multi-coloured warps. Fig. 6 shows a knotting machine in operation on a warp with colour  equence, tensioned on the proper frame.