USE OF ZINC OXIDE NANO PARTICLES FOR PRODUCTION OF ANTIMICROBIAL TEXTILES


By:  R. Rajendran, C. Balakumar, Hasabo A. Mohammed Ahammed, S. Jayakumar, K. Vaideki and E.M. Rajesh

The application of nanoscale materials and structures, usually ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm), is an emerging area of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles for applications such as catalysis, electronics, textiles, environmental protection, and biotechnology is an area of constant interest. Recently, an awareness of general sanitation, contact disease transmission, and personal protection has led to the development of antimicrobial textiles. The development of antimicrobial cotton fabrics using Zinc oxide nanoparticles has been investigated in this present work. The ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by wet chemical method and were directly applied on to the 100% cotton woven fabric using pad-dry-cure method. The antibacterial activity of the finished fabrics was assessed qualitatively by agar diffusion and parallel streak method, quantitatively by percentage reduction test. The topographical analysis of the treated fabric and untreated fabric were studied and compared. The results show that the finished fabric demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus in both qualitative and quantitative tests. The SEM analysis revealed the embedding of ZnO nanoparticles in treated fabrics. The wash durability study of the treated fabric was also carried out and found to withstand up to 25 wash cycles.

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Use of zinc oxide nano particles for production of antimicrobial textiles

EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ZnO NANOPARTICLES COATED SONOCHEMICALLY ONTO TEXTILE FABRICS


By: Gagandeep Singh, Eadaoin M. Joyce*, James Beddow and Timothy J. Mason

Growing resistance of microorganisms to potent antibiotics has renewed a great interest towards investigating bactericidal properties of nanoparticles and their nanocomposites as an alternative. In the present work studies have been carried out to investigate the antibacterial properties of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Various tests were performed to assess the antibacterial activity of cotton fabrics coated with ZnO nanoparticles against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activities of the fabrics were assessed semi-quantitatively by the agar diffusion method and the shake flask method (nutrient broth) and quantitatively by the shake flask method (saline) and the absorption method (ISO 20743:2007). The results showed a significant antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles coated onto fabrics against both bacteria, with a slightly higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus as compared to Escherichia coli.

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EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ZnO NANOPARTICLES COATED SONOCHEMICALLY ONTO TEXTILE FABRICS

Electronic autoleveller in Spinning


Electronic autoleveller is used for achieving an automatic adjustment with two different criteria of speed variation:

  • feed rate variation, for all autolevelling standard applications
  • • variation of the delivery speed when the machine requires steady feed rate like in case of linkage with other machines with the same throughput speed (for example, in the after-card drawframe combined with a set of cards).

image The first system, previously analysed, is most frequently used in this process stage. Its operation is schematised in Figure: a mechanic feeler detects the thickness of the material fed, the variations are transformed into electric signals and sent to a control unit which, with a suitable delay corresponding to the passage of the material from the feeler to the drawframe, determines the variation of the feed rate and therefore of the draft. The electronic autoleveller does not set definite limits to the possibility of adjustment but in relation to the correct detection and to the speed limit of the intersecting comb head, the suitable adjusting range applicable varies between – 25% and + 25%. It is also possible to store the maximum and minimum drawing limits beyond which the machine no longer complies with the technological operating conditions allowed for each material.

Spinning standards for mill planning


Spinning table

Staple length

In inch

Lap weight oz/yd

Spinnability (warp) Ne

Lap hank oz/yd

7/8

16

<20

0.00119

7/8 to 15/16

15

20-30

0.00126

15/16 to 1

14

30-40

0.00136

1 to 1(1/8)

13

40-50

0.00146

1(1/8) to 1 (1/4)

12

50-60

0.00158

1 (1/4) to 1(1/3-/8)

11

60-70

0.00173

1(1/3-/8) to 1(1/2)

10

70-80

0.00190

1(1/2) to 1(9/16)

9

80-100

0.00211

Sliver weight and sliver hank table

Count

Sliver weight

Sliver hank

Sliver weight

Grains/yd

g/yd(ktex)

Ne

g/yd

Upto 15

65

4.60

0.1284

4.21

15-20

65

4.60

0.1284

4.21

20-30

60

4.24

0.1392

3.88

30-50

55

3.89

0.1518

3.56

50-70

50

3.54

0.1668

3.24

70-90

45

3.19

0.2022

3.92

90-120

35-40

2.48 to2.83

0.260-0.2279

2.27-2.59

TM values for various staples:

If the staple length of fibre is 7/8” than TM value would be 4.75 and if staple length increases by 1/16” than TM value goes down by 0.1.

 

Machine its draft, doubling and waste%

Machine

Draft

Doubling

Waste%

Blow room

According to the count to be spun

Card

90-120

According to the count and between 3.5-5.5%

Draw frame

6-8

6-8

0.5

Lap former

1.2-1.7

16-24

0.5

Super lap former

2-5

24-60

0.5

Sliver lap

1.3-1.7

16-24

0.5

Ribbon lap

6

6

0.5

Comber

Old 40-70

New 40-90

6

4

<6 scratch comb

6-10 semi comb

10-18 regular comb

18-25 double comb

Simplex

8-12

If required 2

0.5

Slubber

3-5

0.5

Inter

4-6

0.5

Roving

5-8

If required 2

0.5

Ring frame

Conv.

10-20

2

Modern

20-50

2

Rotor

Conv.

100-150

2-3

Modern

100-250

2-3

Winding

1

M/c and its production capacity in terms of speed

1. Blow room

Production capacity in terms of speed Efficiency %
With chut feed system= 300-500 Kg 90
With 2 scutcher per blow room line and lap roll dia. 10” and rpm 7(+/-)1. The production varies from 180-240 Kg/hr/line 90

2. Card

Production capacity in terms of speed
Type Doffer rpm Efficiency
Conv. 5-15 90-92%
SHP 10-20 90-92%
HP 20-40 90-92%
VHP 40-120 90-92%

3. Draw frame

Production capacity in terms of speed
Type Efficiency No of delivery Mpm
Conv. 70-75% 4 20-30
SHP 70-75% 3 200
HP 70-75% 2 250-500
VHP 70-75% 1 750-1000

4. Lap former and super lap former

Delivery speed-50-70 mpm

Efficiency-70-75%

5. Comber

Feed per nip- 3.5 to 7mm

Type Neps/min No of heads No of delivery Efficiency
Conv. 60-70 6 1 90
HP 15-225 8 2 90
VHP Upto 400 8 2 90

6. Speed frame

Type Spindle speed No of spindles Efficiency
Slubber 500-550 72 85
Inter 55-600 138 85
Roving 600-1000 168 90
Simplex 1200-1500 132 85

7. Ring frame

Ring dia Count Spindle rpm Efficiency
50 <20 12000 90
45 20-40 13500 90
42 40-60 14500 90
42 60-80 15500 90
38 >80 16500 90
TM values for speed frame
machine Staple length
7/8” 1” 1 (1/4)” 1(1/2)”
Slubber 1.2 1 0.95 0.7-0.8
Inter/simplex 1.2 1.1 0.95 0.7-0.8
Roving 1.2 1 0.8-.9
The value for PET and VR for length of sliver and devices 2 or 3 is 0.6

8. Winding machine specification

Delivery rate 1000-2000 mpm

Efficiency- 90%

No. Of spindle- 60

Maintenance allounce
machine % maintenance allounce
Blow room
Card 10% of total no of cards
DF
LF
Comber
Simplex
RF 2% on number of spindle
Rotor -do-

9. Rotor specification

Rotor rpm 80000-100000 rpm

Efficiency- 90%

Reasons For Textile Testing


The testing of textile products is an expensive business. A laboratory has to be set up and furnished with a range of test equipment. Trained operatives have to be employed whose salaries have to be paid throughout the year, not just when results are required. Moreover all these costs are non productive and therefore add to the final cost of the product. Therefore it is important that testing is not undertaken without adding some benefit to the final product.

There are a number of points in the production cycle where testing may be carried out to improve the product or to prevent sub-standard merchandise progressing further in the cycle.

Checking raw materials

The production cycle as far as testing is concerned starts with the delivery of raw material. If the material is incorrect or sub-standard then it is impossible to produce the required quality of final product.

The textile industry consists of a number of separate processes such as natural fibre production, man-made fibre extrusion, wool scouring, yarn spinning, weaving, dyeing and finishing, knitting, garment manufacture and production of household and technical products. These processes are very often carried out in separate establishments, therefore what is considered to be a raw material depends on the stage in processing at which the testing takes place. It can be either the raw fibre for a spinner, the yarn for a weaver
or the finished fabric for a garment maker. The incoming material is checked for the required properties so that unsuitable material can be rejected or appropriate adjustments made to the production conditions. The standards that the raw material has to meet must be set at a realistic level. If the standards are set too high then material will be rejected that is good enough for the end use, and if they are set too low then large amounts of inferior material will go forward into production.

Monitoring production

Production monitoring, which involves testing samples taken from the production line, is known as quality control. Its aim is to maintain, within known tolerances, certain specified properties of the product at the level at which they have been set. A quality product for these purposes is defined as one whose properties meets or exceeds the set specifications. Besides the need to carry out the tests correctly, successful monitoring of production also requires the careful design of appropriate sampling procedures and the use of statistical analysis to make sense of the results.

Assessing the final product

In this process the bulk production is examined before delivery to the customer to see if it meets the specifications. By its nature this takes place after the material has been produced. It is therefore too late to alter the production conditions. In some cases selected samples are tested and in other cases all the material is checked and steps taken to rectify faults. For instance some qualities of fabric are inspected for faulty places which are then mended by skilled operatives; this is a normal part of the process and the material would be dispatched as first quality.

Investigation of faulty material

If faulty material is discovered either at final inspection or through a customer complaint it is important that the cause is isolated. This enables steps to be taken to eliminate faulty production in future and so provide a better quality product. Investigations of faults can also involve the determination of which party is responsible for faulty material in the case of a dispute between a supplier and a user, especially where processes such as finishing have been undertaken by outside companies. Work of this nature is often contracted out to independent laboratories who are then able to give an unbiased opinion.

Product development and research

In the textile industry technology is changing all the time, bringing modified materials or different methods of production. Before any modified product reaches the market place it is necessary to test the material to check that the properties have been improved or have not been degraded by faster production methods. In this way an improved product or a lower-cost product with the same properties can be provided for the customer. A large organisation will often have a separate department to carry out research and development; otherwise it is part of the normal duties of the testing department.

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GreenFields delivers fully recyclable artificial grass system


27 October 2011, Genemuiden

A Dutch football club has installed a new 100% recyclable artificial grass pitch which uses a patented weaving technique which results in the turf fibres remaining upright.

Thanks to GreenFields, HHC Hardenberg (HHC)  football club has a 100% recyclable artificial grass football pitch. HHC took the initiative for the project and by collaborating with GreenFields, artificial turf manufacturer TenCate Grass and installer C.S.C. Ceelen Sport Constructies, it can now boast one of the world’s first genuinely ‘green’ artificial turf pitch.

United we stand

Due to strong growth in the number of HHC members, an extra artificial turf pitch was an urgent necessity. Since the municipality had no budget available for a new artificial turf pitch, HHC Hardenberg had to acquire the necessary financial resources through its own (sponsor) network. Collaboration with GreenFields, TenCate Grass and C.S.C. Ceelen Sport Constructies resulted in the choice of the woven artificial grass system from TenCate Grass.

In addition to excellent playing characteristics, the product is said to have the most natural appearance and is 100% recyclable. New patented weaving technique The innovative artificial grass system is produced by TenCate Grass using a new patented weaving technique and the production process makes it possible to jointly use materials from the same product family (polypropylene and polyethylene).

The components of artificial grass, in particular the backing, coating and artificial grass fibres, are made using the same environmentally friendly material, making the entire artificial grass system recyclable in its entirety.

“This fully recyclable artificial grass system is the ultimate proof that, together with its partners, GreenFields develops and delivers innovative and environmentally friendly production solutions,” said  Gerrit van Weeghel, General Director of GreenFields. Hugo de Vries, Sales Manager and Head of R&D at GreenFields, is proud of the new product.

“This patented weaving technique not only makes the product 100% recyclable, but also gives it unique properties that offer a significant advantage to both the game and the players. Thanks to this special weaving technique, the fibres remain upright naturally.”

“The patented weaving technique also offers lots of additional benefits, including greater fibre density and the combination of different types of fibres and heights in a single system. The result is a football field with playing characteristics that are indistinguishable from the properties offered by natural grass,” De Vries added.

F rom :- http://www.innovationintextiles.com/articles/1096.php