A COMPRIHENSIVE DICTIONARY OF TEXTILE


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by  : Mason Brown

Textiles are fibres that are spun into yarn or made into fabric by weaving, knitting, braiding, and felting. The term is now applicable to natural and synthetic filaments, yarns, and threads as well as to the woven, knitted, felted, tufted, braided, bonded, knotted, and embroidered fabrics. The spinning and weaving were one of the first crafts that is believed to have been practiced as early as the New Stone Age. In ancient Egypt, the earliest textiles were woven from flax in India, Peru, and Cambodia, from cotton in the Southern European; from wool in China.

Textile also includes non-woven fabrics produced by mechanically or chemically bonding fibres. Computerised textile mill with multiple machines run continuously to produce textiles in the modern market. In a mill, the initial stage of processing fibre into fabric is almost entirely coordinated and controlled by computer. Computers are able to execute complex weaving and spinning jobs with great speed and accuracy. Most are equipped with monitoring sensors that will stop production if an error is detected.

The initial stage of textile manufacturing involves the production of the raw material either by farmers who raise cotton, sheep, silkworms, or flax or by chemists who produce fibre from various basic substances by chemical processes. The fibre is spun into yarn, which is then processed into fabric in a weaving or knitting mill. After dyeing and finishing, the woven material is ready for delivery either directly to a manufacturer of textile products to finally get stitched into clothes that we wear.

This book gives you an insight for terminology used in the textile industry. It should be helpful for everyone who is associated with garment, and textile industry.

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http://www.4shared.com/office/SGs4M_TZce/2010_A_Comprehensive_Dictionar.html

The MAIN Shirt: A Textile-Integrated Magnetic Induction Sensor Array


By : Daniel Teichmann,  Andreas Kuhn, Steffen Leonhardt and Marian Walter

Abstract: A system is presented for long-term monitoring of respiration and pulse. It comprises four non-contact sensors based on magnetic eddy current induction that are textile-integrated into a shirt. The sensors are technically characterized by laboratory experiments that investigate the sensitivity and measuring depth, as well as the mutual interaction between adjacent pairs of sensors. The ability of the device to monitor respiration and pulse is demonstrated by measurements in healthy volunteers. The proposed system (called the MAIN (magnetic induction) Shirt) does not need electrodes or any other skin contact. It is wearable, unobtrusive and can easily be integrated into an individual’s daily routine. Therefore, the system appears to be a suitable option for long-term monitoring in a domestic environment or any other unsupervised telemonitoring scenario.

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The MAIN Shirt: A Textile-Integrated Magnetic Induction Sensor Array

SPECIFICATIONS/PROPERTIES REQUIRED FOR THE MEDITECH PRODUCTS AND THEIR TESTING


By: – T.Sureshram
Junior Scientific Officer, Department of Textile Physics,
The South India Textile Research Association, Coimbatore-14

Combination of textile technology and medical sciences has resulted into a new field called medical textiles. Medical textiles are one of the most rapidly expanding sectors in the technical textile market. Textile materials in the medical textile field gradually have taken on more important roles. The wide range of textile products used in the medical industry are classified in to four major segments namely non-implantable materials, implantable materials, extracorporeal devices and healthcare & hygiene products. This paper deals with the specifications/properties required and different types of test methods involved for evaluating the characteristics of the medical textile products.

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Testing Specification

Innovations in fibres and textile materials for sportswear


Fibre developments

The evolution of fibre developments has gone through the phases of conventional fibres, highly functional fibres and high-performance fibres. Polyester is the single most common fibre used for sportswear and active wear. Other fibres suitable for active wear are polyamide, polypropylene, acrylics and elastanes. Wool and cotton fibres are still finding applications in leisurewear. Synthetic fibres can either be modified during manufacture, e.g. by producing hollow fibres and fibres with irregular cross-section, or be optimally blended with natural fibres to improve their thermo-physiological and sensory properties. Synthetic fibres with improved UV resistance and having anti-microbial properties are also commercially available for use in sportswear.

Improved fibre spinning techniques in melt spinning, wet spinning, dry spinning as well as new techniques such as gel spinning, bi-component spinning and microfibre spinning, have all made it possible to produce fibres, yarns and fabrics with unique performance characteristics suitable for use in sportswear and sports goods. New technologies for producing microfibres have also contributed towards production of high-tech sportswear.

By using the conjugate spinning technique, many different types of sophisticated fibres with various functions have been commercially produced  which has resulted in fabrics having improved mechanical, physical, chemical and biological functions. The technique of producing sheath/core melt spun conjugate fibres has been commercially exploited for producing added-value fibres. Unitika produced the first heat-degenerating conjugate fibre with a core containing zirconium carbide (ZrC). Since ZrC absorbs sunlight (visible and near-infrared radiation) and emits far-infrared radiation, one feels warmer when one puts on a jacket made from such fibres. Other types of heat-generating fibres contain ceramic micro-particles.

High-performance fibres

Today, a wide range of high-performance fibres is commercially available for technical and industrial applications. These types of fibres are used in sports protective wear/equipment developed for impact protection and in textile reinforcement in sports products for different applications. Among the speciality fibres already established are the following:

Aramid fibres:

± p-aramid fibre to provide high strength and ballistics
± m-aramid fibre to provide flame and heat resistance.

Ultra-high tenacity polyethylene fibres (UHMWPE).

Gel spun, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fibres with extremely high specific strength and modulus, high chemical resistance and high abrasion resistance.

Polyphenylene sulphide fibres (PPS).

Crystalline thermoplastic fibre with mechanical properties similar to regular polyester fibre. Excellent heat and chemical resistance.

Polyetheretherketone fibres (PEEK).

Crystalline thermoplastic fibre with high resistance to heat and to a wide range of chemicals.

· Novoloid (cured phenol-aldehyde) fibres.

High flame resistance, non-melting with high resistance to acid, solvents, steam, chemicals and fuels. Good moisture regain and soft hand.

· PBO (p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) fibres.

The strength and modulus of this fibre exceed those of any known fibres.

Highly functional fabrics

There has been a strong growth in the development and use of highly functional materials in sportswear and outdoor leisure clothing. The performance requirements of many such products demand the balance of widely different properties of drape, thermal insulation, barrier to liquids, antistatic, stretch, physiological comfort, etc. The research in this field over the past decade has led to the commercial development of a variety of new products for highly functional end-uses. By designing new processes for fabric preparation and finishing, and as a result of advances in technologies for the production and application of suitable polymeric membranes and surface finishes, it is now possible to combine the consumer requirements of aesthetics, design and function in sportswear for different end-use applications. The fabrics for active wear and sportswear are also specially constructed both in terms of the geometry, packing density and structure of the constituent fibres in yarns and in terms of the construction of the fabric in order to achieve the necessary dissipation of heat and moisture at high metabolic rates. Many smart double-knitted or double- woven fabrics have been developed for sportswear in such a way that their inner face, close to human skin, has optimal moisture wicking and sensory properties whereas the outer face of the fabric has optimal moisture dissipation behaviour.

In addition to the innovations in highly functional man-made fibre-based fabrics, advances have also been made in cotton and wool fabrics for sportswear. An example is the development of `Sportwool’ weatherproof technology, where the constituent fibre, yarn and fabric properties and the fabric finishes of `Sportwool’ are supposed to create a drier and cooler microclimate.

Since the introduction of Gore-Tex fabric in 1976, a variety of lightweight breathable highly functional fabrics have been developed worldwide. Highly functional fabrics are generally characterized as being waterproof/moisture permeable, sweat-absorbing and with high thermal insulation at low thickness values. These fabrics are now extensively used in making sportswear and sports shoes. One can say that these products are basically complex materials with diverse functions. In many of these products the requirements of comfort and fashion have successfully been integrated with segmentation in uses.

Important developments are envisaged in making multifunctional coated or laminated fabrics for different applications. For example, some new innovative functional textiles for protective clothing were recently introduced by W. Gore and Associates. Gore-Tex Airlock is a functional textile which was developed by Gore for the special needs of firefighters. The concept of this product is to eliminate the conventional, bulky, thermal insulation layer and substitute it by a protective air cushion. Dots consisting of foamed silicone are discontinuously applied to a fibre substrate and anchored within the microporous Gore-Tex membrane. They measure only a few millimetres in height, creating a defined air cushion between the adjacent flame-retardant face fabric and the inner lining. This laminated fabric is characterized by thermal insulation, breathability, perspiration transport, absorption and quick-dry properties.

Biomimetics and textiles

The structure and functions of natural biological materials are precise and well defined. The imitation of living systems, `biomimetics’, could make it possible in future to replicate the molecular design and morphology of natural biological materials since their structure and functions are related. Already in many laboratories around the world, R&D work is going on in the field of biomimetic chemistry and fabric formation. A typical example is the development of water- and soil-repellent fabrics produced by imitating the surface structure of a lotus leaf. Water rolls like mercury from the lotus leaf, whose surface is micro-
scopically rough and covered with a wax-like substance with low surface tension. When water is dropped on to the surface of a lotus leaf, air is trapped in the dents and forms a boundary with water.

Intelligent textiles

There have been some interesting developments taking place regarding intelligent textiles and interactive materials with great market potential in the sportswear sector. These materials readily interact with human/environmental conditions thereby creating changes in the material properties. For example, the phase-change materials and shape-memory polymers embedded in fabric layers will be able to interact with a human body and produce thermoregulatory control by affecting the microclimate between the clothing and the human skin. In addition to the two dimensions of functionality and aesthetics, if `intelligence’ can be embedded or integrated into clothing as a third dimension, it would lead to the realization of protective and safety clothing as a personalized wearable information infrastructure.

Reference: “Textiles in sports” by R.Shishoo

Technical Textiles – A Vision of Future


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Textiles are no more limited for use as apparels clothing is just are but not the only purpose of textiles with the rapid changes in the social economic structure of our society. Many efforts are made to some and protect human life. Textiles come to our help in every walk of life. Similarly, textiles enhancing the quality of human life trough protection against various hazards as well as protection of environment are today’s priorities were scientist all around the world are breaking their heads. Technical textiles are the fastest growing area of textile consumption in the world. As per the market survey it has projected an average growth rate of 4% for technical textiles during the period 1995-2005.

In most of the developed countries, technical textiles already account for 4% of the total textile production. Even in many developing countries, the proportion is well above 10%. At present, India’s contribution in this area is negligible at about 0.2%.However, due to competition from neighboring countries ad emerging economic power, India has tremendous potential for production, Consumption and export of technical textile. In the circumstances, textiles are playing major role through its diversified applications and undoubtedly the future of this technical textiles appears tom be bright in this, lot of uses are there. They are medical textiles, protective textiles, agricultural textiles, geo textiles, automotive textiles, smart textiles and industrial textiles.

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technical-textiles

Moisture Management


  • By:- DR. PETRY, TEXTILE AUXILARIES

  • Definition

In general, „moisture management“ is understood to be the ability of a textile to absorb gaseous or liquid humidity from the skin, to transport it from the inside of a textile to the outer surface and to release it into the surrounding air.

To evalua;te the „moisture management“ of a textile one has to know about both the basic temperature regulation of the human body, and about the properties of the textile required by this regulation.

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Finishing


INTRODUCTION
The aim of this book is to supply the most comprehensive and global insight into textile finishing processes. Since the subject is exceptionally extensive and complex, this book may appear limited to the experts working in this sector. As far as students are concerned, we hope that this book will offer them an essential background, a basis to be extended by further studies.

Textile finishing usually includes treatments such as scouring, bleaching, dyeing and/or printing, the final mechanical or chemical finishing operations, that during this stage are carried out on textile products (staple, sliver or top, yarns or filaments, woven or knitted fabrics) to enhance their basic characteristics like dye penetration, printability,  ettability, colour, hand, and appearance.

By textile finishing, we also mean all the processing operations that, though included in the socalled finishing stage, are generally applied to the fabrics to improve their  appearance, hand and properties, at times in accordance with their field of application. The finishing stage plays a fundamental role in the excellency of the commercial results of textiles, which strictly depend on market requirements that are becoming increasingly stringent and unpredictable, permitting very short response times for textile manufacturers.
The latest machines on the market used for finishing operations generally offer multi-purpose applications; the flexibility and versatility features of these machines are  uninterruptedly evolving to grant excellent consistency of the results.

Finishing operations can be carried out by means of discontinuous, continuous and semicontinuous systems.

  • Discontinuous or batch-type systems: all the operations are carried out on a single machine; it is therefore necessary to load the machine, carry out the treatments following a predetermined cycle, unload the machine and finally wash it thoroughly before starting a new cycle. This working process is extremely flexible and is suitable for processing small lots: for example, it is possible to a carry out a scouring treatment on a single machine, then a bleaching one followed by a dyeing process. For the production of large lots, the discontinuous process is labour-intensive, i.e. it requires many operators to load and unload the material; it also entails long processing times and results that can vary from one batch to another.
  • Continuous systems: the operations are carried out by means of a series of machines; every  machine carries out always and solely the same process. Every machine is assembled according to specific production requirements. A system like this entails high start-up costs and a complex setup but once the system has started, it requires a smaller staff and grants excellent repeatability and high output rates; continuous systems are therefore suitable for manufacturing large lots of products with the highest cost-efficiency.
  • Semi-continuous systems: in these mixed systems several operations are carried out with both continuous and discontinuous machines. For example, a continuous pad-batch machine is used to wet the fabric and a discontinuous system is then used for other treatments. These mixed systems are suitable for processing small and medium lots; they require reasonable start-up costs and grant quite good reproducibility

The textile finishing stage:

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Technical Textiles


Textiles are indispensable part of human life. They are used mainly to cover the human body for protection against all the adversities. Technological innovations have also made it possible for textile industry to offer technical solutions to the multiple end-users in the different industries.

Technical textiles are defined as textile materials and products used primarily for their technical performance and functional properties rather than their aesthetic or decorative characteristics. Other terms used for defining technical textiles include industrial textiles, functional textiles, performance textiles, engineering textiles, invisible textiles and hi-tech textiles.

An outstanding feature of the technical textile industry is the range and diversity of raw materials, processes, products and applications that it encompasses.

Technical textiles are used individually or as a component/part of another product. Technical textiles are used individually to satisfy specific functions such as fire retardant fabric for uniforms of firemen and coated fabric to be used as awnings. As a component or part of another product, they are used to enhance the strength, performance or other functional properties of that product as done by the tyre cord fabrics in tyres and interlining in shirt collars. They are also used as accessories in processes to manufacture other products like filter fabric in food industry or paper maker felt in paper mills.

Technical textiles have been slowly but steadily gaining ground due to one or more of the reasons such as: functional requirement, health & safety; cost effectiveness; durability; high strength; light weight; versatility; customization; user friendliness; eco friendliness; logistical convenience etc.

Unlike conventional textiles used traditionally for clothing or furnishing, technical textiles are used basically on account of their specific physical and functional properties and mostly by other user industries. Depending on the product characteristics, functional requirements and end-use applications the highly diversified range of technical textile products have been grouped into 12 sectors application wise:

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  1. Agrotech (Agriculture, horticulture and forestry)
  2. Buildtech (building and construction)
  3. Clothtech (technical components of shoes and clothing)
  4. Geotech (geotextiles, civil engineering)
  5. Hometech (components of furniture, household textiles and floor coverings)
  6. Indutech (filtration, cleaning and other industrial usage)
  7. Meditech (hygiene and medical)
  8. Mobiltech (automobiles, shipping, railways and aerospace)
  9. Oekotech (environmental protection)
  10. Packtech (packaging)
  11. Protech (personal and property protection)
  12. Sporttech (sport and leisure
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