The new generation of carpet weaving machines combines flexibility and productivity


For a long time, high production and high speed were the most important factors in carpet weaving. Recently, a new aspect in the production has become important: flexibility. Carpet weavers want to weave different styles, qualities,…and change quickly. Flexibility is as or even more) important as productivity. he developments in raw materials contribute positively to this new rend. New dying techniques, chemical compounds, treatments,…improve the quality and increase the choice of raw material.Another definite contributor are the new developments and technical improvements of the weaving machines. The use of electronics,microprocessors, networking,…help fulfilling the increasing
demand for more colours and flexibility in style. The carpet designers can now use their full creativity.The aim of Van de Wiele is to keep fulfilling, as much as possible, the demands of the carpet industry. The Van de Wiele machinery covers abroad range of applications and carpet styles (see table 1 & 2). This article will handle more in detail the different carpet weaving techniques and machines.

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In spinning mills, sticky cotton can cause serious problems. It contaminates the textile machineries like blow room , card, drawing, roving, and spinning frames. These contaminants are mainly sugar deposits produced either by the cotton plant itself (physiological sugars) or by feeding insects (entomological sugars), the latter being the most common source of stickiness.
Seventeen mixes having a moderate level of stickiness were evaluated in both ring and rotor spinning. High-performance liquid chromatography tests were performed on residues collected from the textile machinery to identify the types of sugars present. It was shown that among the sugars identified on raw fiber, only trehalulose exhibits higher percentages in the residues than on the fiber. During the fibers-to-yarn transformation, the flow of lint is submitted to different friction forces; consequently, the temperature of some mechanical elements may increase significantly and affect the thermal properties of the contaminated lint. After a sugar becomes sticky, the other sugars present on the lint, as well as other substances such as dusts, silica, etc., will stick to the lint and could cause unevenness in the flow of lint being drawn, such as lapping up on the rolls, nep-like structures, and ends-down….

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With all harvesting methods, however, the cotton seed, together with the fibres, always gets into the ginning plant where it is broken up into trash and seed-coat fragments. This means that ginned cotton is always contaminated with trash and dust particles and that an intensive cleaning is only possible in the spinning mill.

Nep content increases drastically with mechanical harvesting, ginning and subsequent cleaning process. The reduction of the trash content which is necessary for improving cotton grade and apperance unfortunately results in a higher nep content level.

The basic purpose of  Blow room is to supply

  • small fibre tufts
  • clean fibre tufts
  • homogeneously blended tufts if more than one variety of fibre is used

to carding machine  without increasing  fibre rupture, fibre neps , broken seed particles and without removing more  good fibres.

The above is achieved by the following processes in the blowroom

  1. Pre opening
  2. pre cleaning
  3. mixing or blending
  4. fine opening
  5. dedusting


Cleaning efficiency of the machine is the ratio of the trash removed  by the machine to that of  total trash fed to the machine, expressed as percentage

Cleaning efficiency % =(( trash in feed % – trash in del %) x 100) / (trash in feed%)

Following are the basic parameters  to be considered in Blowroom process.

  • no of opening machines
  • type of beater
  • type of beating
  • Beater speed
  • setting between feed roller and beater
  • production rate of individual machine
  • production rate of the entire line
  • thickness of the feed web
  • density of the feed web
  • fibre micronaire
  • size of the flocks in the feed
  • type of clothing  of the beater
  • point density of clothing
  • type of grid and grid settings
  • air flow through the grid
  • position of the machine in the sequence
  • amount of trash in the material
  • type of trash in the material
  • temp and relative humidity in the blow room department


Effective preopening results in smaller tuft sizes, thus creating a large surface area for easy  and efficient removal of trash particles by the fine openers.


Fig:-BO-c bale opener

If MBO (Rieter) or  BO-c ( Trutzschler) type of machine is used as a first machine

  • the tuft size in the mixing should be as small as possible. Normally it should be less than 10 grams
  • since this machine does not take care of long term blending, mixing should be done properly to maintain the homogenous blending
  • the inclined lattice speed and the setting between inclined lattice and clearer roller decides the production of the machine
  • the setting between inclined lattice and clearer roller decides the quality of the tuft
  • if  the setting is too close, the tuft size will be small, but the neps in the cotton will be increased due to  repeated action of the  inclined lattice pins on cotton.
  • the clearance should be decided  first to confirm the quality, then inclined lattice speed can be decided according to the   production required
  • the setting of inclined lattice depends upon the fibre density, fibre micronaire and the tuft size fed. If smaller tuft is fed to the feeding conveyor, the fibre tufts will not be recycled many times, hence the neps will be less.
  • if the machine is with beater, it is advisable to use only disc type beater. Saw tooth and Pinned beaters should not be used in this machine, because the fibre  damage at this stage will be very high and heavier trash particles will be broken in to small pieces.
  • the beater  speed  should be around 500 to 800 rpm depending upon the rawmaterial. Coarser the fibre,  higher the speed
  • the setting between feed roller to beater should be around 4 to 7 mm
  • this machine is not meant to remove trash ,  hence the fibre loss should also be less
  • trash removal in this machine will result in breaking the seeds, which is very difficult to remove
  • It is easier to remove the bigger trash than the smaller trash, therefore enough care should be taken to avoid breaking the trash particles
  • this machine is  just to open the tufts into small sizes so that cleaning becomes easier in the next machines.
  • the fibre tuft size from this  machine should be  preferably around 100 to 200 milligrams.
  • If tuft size is  small, removing trash particles becomes easier , because of large surface area


Fig:- Unifloc11

If Uniflco11(Rieter) or Blendomat BDT 019(Trutzschler) is used as a first machine

  • It helps to maintain the homogeneity of the long term blending
  • cotton is opened gently without recyling as it is done in manual bale openers
  • with the latest automatic bale opening machines,  the tuft size can be as small as 50 to 100 grams without  rupturing the fibres
  • the opening roller speed should be around 1500 to 1800 rpm.
  • the depth of penetration of the opening  should be as minimum as possible for better quality
  • It is better to use this machine with one mixing or maximum two mixing at  the same.
  • If the production per feeding machine is less than 150 kgs, then four mixings can be recommended
  • production rate of this machine depends upon the no of mixings working at the same time
  • production rate depends  upon opening roller depth, traverse speed and the fibre tuft density
  • in general , the machine parameters should be set in such a way that  maximum number of take-off points are available  per unit time.
  • with the latest machines (Rieter -Unifloc A11), around 60% of take-off points are more compared to earlier machines



Fig: Uniclean B12

Precleaning should be gentle. Since removing finer trash particles is difficult , seeds and bigger trash particles should not be broken. Finer trash particles require severe treatment in Fine openers. This will lead to fibre damage and more nep generation. Therefore, precleaning should be as gentle as possible and no compromise on this. If preopening and precleaning are done  properly,  consistency in trash removal by fine openers is assured. Dust removal should be started in this machine. Enough care should be taken remove dust  in this process.

Rieter’s Uniclean B11 and Trutzschler’s Axiflow or Maxiflow  are the machines which does this work

  • the fibre treatment in this machine is very gentle because  the fibres are not gripped by the feed roller during beating.  Fibre tufts treated by the pin beater when it is carried by air medium
  • all heavy trash particles fall down before it is broken
  • cleaning efficiency of this machine is very high in the blow room line
  • Mostly all heavy seeds( full seeds) fall in this machine without any problem
  • around 50 pascal suction pressure should be maintained in the waste chamber for better cleaning efficiency
  • beater speed, air velocity through the machine, grid bar setting and gap between grid bars will affect the cleaning efficiency
  • higher the cleaning efficiency,  higher the good fibre loss, higher the nep generaion and higher the fibre rupture
  • the optimum cleaning means maximum cleaning performance, minimum loss of good fibres, a high degree of fibre preservation and minimum nep generation
  • Rieter has a unique concept called “VARIOSET”. With this machine, selective trash removal is possible. Waste  amount can be changed in a range of 1:10.


fig: from Rieter which shows , degree of cleaning, fibre loss, neps, fibre damage.

  • with normal machines like Monocylinder or axiflow, a lot of trials to be conducted to arrive at optimum beater speed, air velocity(fan speed), grid bar setting and grid bar gap.
  • in general the beater speed is around 750 and  minimum 50 Pascal suction pressure to be maintained in the suction chamber


  • Barre or streakiness is due to uneven mixing of different cottons. Hence mixing technology is a decisive factor in spinning mill technology
  • bigger the differences of cotton parameters like fineness, color and staple length, the greater the importance of mixing
  • if the cotton has honeydew, the intensive mixing of the rawmaterial is a precondition  for an acceptable running behaviour  of the complete spinning mill

following  fig is given by trutzschler for different  mixing requirements


standard               standar- plus              high                   high-end

  • Trutzschler’s tandem mixing concept is an  ultimate solution, if the mixing requirement is very high. This principle guarantees a maximum homogeneous of the mix

FIG.Tandem mixing concept from TRUTZSCHLER:


Fine cleaning is done with different types of machines. Some fine cleaners are with single opening rollers  and some are with multiple opening rollers.

  • If single roller cleaning  machines are used, depending upon the  amount and type of trash in the cotton, the number of fine cleaning points can be either one or two.
  • If the production  rate is lower than 250 kgs and the micronaire is less than 4.0, it is advisable to use single roller cleaning machines instead of multiple roller cleaning machine.
  • Saw tooth beaters can be used, if trash particles are more and the machine is not using suction and deflector blades. i.e beater and regular grid bar arrangements
  • Normal beater speeds with saw tooth beater depends upon the production rate,  fibre micronaire and trash content
more trash 3.5 to 4.0 200 to 300 kgs /hr 600 to 750
less trash 3.5 to 4.0 200 to 300 kgs/hr 600 to 750
more trash 4.0 to 4.5 200 to 300 kgs 700 to 850
less trash 4.0 to 4.5 350 to 500 kgs 1000 and above
  • the number of wire points depends on the production rate and trash.
  • setting between feed roller and beater depends on the production rate and micronaire.  The setting should be around 2 to 3 mm.  Wider setting always result  in higher rawmaterial faults, if carding does not take care.
  • closer the setting between beater and mote knives, higher the waste collected. It is advisable to keep around 3 mm.
  • If it is a Trutzschler blowroom line, it is better to use  CVT1 ( single opening roller machine) if  roller ginned cotton  is used.
  • CVT3  or CVT4 machines with 3 or 4 opening rollers can be used for saw ginned cotton.
  • The cleaning points in CVT1, CVT3, CVT4 etc consists of opening roller, deflector blades, mote knives and suction hood. Trash particles released due to centrifugal forces are  separated at the mote knives and continuously taken away by the  suction. This gives better cleaning

FIG: trash removal concept in CVT cleaners:

  • suction plays a major role in these machines. If suction  is not consistent , the performance will be affected badly.  Very high suction will result in more white fibre loss and less suction will result in low cleaning efficiency.
  • The minimum recommended pressure in the waste chamber (P2) is 700 Pascal’s. It can be upto 1000 Pascal’s.
  • material suction (P1) should be around 500 Pascal’s
  • Whenever the suction pressure is changed, the deflector blade settings should be  checked
  • Deflector blade setting can not be same for all the three rollers or four rollers. The setting for deflector blades in the panel looks like this 3, 12, 30 for 1st, 2nd and 3rd deflector blades.
  • The deflector blade setting should be done in such a way that  the setting should be opened till the fibres start slipping on the deflector blade.
  • wider the deflector blade setting, higher the waste. If the setting is too wide, white fibre loss will be very high.
  • for saw ginned cottons, the above concepts helps a lot because of constant suction concentrated directly at the moteknives, ensures much removal of dust from the cotton.



Fig: Dustex

Apart from opening cleaning of rawmaterial, dedusting is the very important process in blowroom process.

  • normally dedusting  starts with precleaning
  • it is always better to have a separate machine like DUSTEX of TRUTZSCHLER  for effective dedusting
  • dedusting keeps the atmospheric air clean
  • dedusting in machines like unimix , ERM of Rieter is  good
  • stationary dedusting condensers can be used for this purpose
  • in exhausts of  unimix , condensers , ERM etc, positive pressure of 100 pascal should be maintained. Exhaust fan speed and volume should be accordingly selected
  • DUSTEX should be installed before feeding to the cards, because better the fibre  opening better the dedusting
  • fine openers like ERM, CVT cleaners also help in dedusting
  • It is always better to feed the material through condenser for a feeding machine of cards.  Because condenser continuously removes the dust from a small quantity of fibres  and the material  fed to the feeding machine is opened to some extent.
  • Since material is not opened well in Unimix, the dedusting may not be very effective, even though  dedusting concept in Unimix is very good
  • for rotor spinning dedusting is very important. It is better to use a machine like DUSTEX  after the fine opener.


  • setting between feed rollers is different for different types. It should be according to the standard specified by the manufacturer.  For Unimix it should be around 1 mm.
  • it is advisable to run the fans at optimum speeds.  Higher fan speeds will increase the material velocity and will create  turbulence  in the bends.This will result in curly fibres which will lead to entanglements.
  • If the feeding to cards  is not with CONTI -FEED, the efficiency of the feeding machine should be minimum 90 % and can not be more than 95%.
  • if the cards are fed by CONTI-FEED system,  the feed roller speed variation should not be more than 10%.  If the variation is more, then the variation in tuft size also will be more. Hence the quality will not be uniform
  • If two feeding machines feed to  10 cards and the no of cards can be changed according the requirement, then frequent changes will affect the tuft size which will affect the quality, if the line is fixed with CONTI-FEED.
  • if contifeed system is tuned properly and there are no machine stoppages, continuous material flow will  result in better opening and even feeding to the cards
  • If the production rate per line is high, the reserve chamber  for  the feeding machine should be big enough to avoid long term feed variations.
  • it is advisable to reduce the number of fans  in the line.
  • fan speeds, layout of machines should be selected in such a way that material choking in the pipe line, beater jamming etc will not happen.  This will lead to quality problems
  • all blowroom machines should work with maximum efficiency. The feed roller speeds  should be selected in such a way that  it works atleast 90% of the running time of the next machine.
  • blow room stoppages will always affect the sliver quality both in terms of linear density and  tuft size. Blow room stoppages  should be nil in a mill
  • heavy particles like metal particles, stones should be removed using heavy particle removers , double magnets etc, before they damage  the opening rollers and other machine parts.
  • Number of cleaning  points are decided based on  type of ginning (whether roller ginned or saw ginned), the amount of trash, and the number of trash particles and the type of trash particles.
  • machinery selection should be based on the type of cotton and production requirement. If the production requirement of a blowroom line is less than 200 kgs,  CVT-4 cleaner can not be  recommended, instead CVT-1 can be used.
  • Since blow room requires more space and power, it is better to make use of the maximum production capacity of the machines
  • material level in the storage chambers  should be full  and it should never be less than 1/4 th level.
  • grid bars should be inspected periodically, damaged grid bars  should be replaced.
  • grid bars in  the front rows can be replaced earlier
  • if the cotton is too sticky, the deposits on the machine parts  should be cleaned atleast once in a week, before it obstruct the movement of the fibre
  • fibre rupture should be checked for each opening point.  2.5 % span length should not drop by more than 3% . If the uniformity ratio drops by more than 3%, then  it  is considered that there is fibre rupture.
  • high fan speed, which will result in high velocity of air will increase neps in cotton
  • nep is increased in the blowroom process.  The increase should not be more than 100%.
  • the nep increase in each opening machine should be checked  with different beater speeds and settings, and the optimum  parameters  should be selected. But please remember that everything should be based on  yarn quality checking.  e.g. if nep increase in blow room is  more and the beater speed or feed roller setting is changed, the tuft size will become more. This may result in bad carding quality. Sometimes if the neps are slightly more and the  fibre is well opened, the neps can be removed by cards and combers and the yarn quality may be better.  Therefore all trials should be done upto yarn stage.
  • No of neps and trash particles  after different processes is given below.(an approximate value)
  • Blow room machinery lay out should be desined in such a way that there should be minimum number of bends, and there should not be sharp bends  to avoid fibre entanglements.
  • fibre travelling  surface should be smooth and clean
  • temperature should be around 30 degrees and the humidity is around 55 to 60%.

A best blowroom can be achieved by selecting the following machines:

1.RIETER UNIFLOC- A11 ( pre opening)

2.RIETER UNICLEAN B11 (  pre cleaning)

3.TRUTZSCHLER MPM 6 + MPM6 ( two mixers for blending)

4.TRUTZSCHLER CVT-1 ( for  roller ginned cotton) CVT-3 ( for saw ginned)


6.TRUTZSCHLER  DUSTEX-DX ( for dedusting)


But enough care should be taken to synchronise the machines for better performance  , and to run the line without any electrical system breakdowns.

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Blow Room

  • Introduction

Basic operations in the blowroom:

  1. opening
  2. cleaning
  3. mixing or blending
  4. micro dust removal
  5. uniform feed to the carding machine
  6. Recycling the waste

Blow room installations consists of a sequence of different machines to carry out the above said operations.Moreover Since the tuft size of cotton becomes smaller and smaller, the required intensities of processing necessitates different machine configuration.


· Opening in blowroom means opening into small flocks.Technological operation of opening means the volume of the flock is increased while the number of fibres remains constant. i.e. the specific density of the material is reduced

· The larger the dirt particle , the better they can be removed

· Since almost every blowroom machine can shatter particles, as far as possible a lot of impurities should be eliminated at the start of the process.Opening should be followed immediately by cleaning, if possible in the same machine.

· The higher the degree of opening, the higher the degree of cleaning. A very high cleaning effect is almost always purchased at the cost of a high fibre loss. Higher roller speeds give a better cleaning effect but also more stress on the fibre.

· Cleaning is made more difficult if the impurities of dirty cotton are distributed through a larger quantity of material by mixing with clean cotton.

· The cleaning efficiency is strongly dependent on the TRASH %. It is also affected by the size of the particle and stickiness of cotton. Therefore cleaning efficiency can be different for different cottons with the same trash %.

· There is a new concept called CLEANING RESISTANCE. Different cottons have different cleaning resistance.

· If cotton is opened well in the opening process, cleaning becomes easier because opened cotton has more surface area, therefore cleaning is more efficient

· If automatic bale opener is used, the tuft size should be as small as possible and the machine stop time should be reduced to the minimum level possible

· If Manual Bale openers are used, the tuft size fed to the feed lattice should be as small as possible

· Due to machine harvesting , cotton contains more and more impurities, which furthermore are shattered by hard ginning. Therefore cleaning is always an important basic operation.

· In cleaning, it is necessary to release the adhesion of the impurities to the fibres and to give the particles an opportunity to separate from the stock. The former is achieved mostly by picking of flocks, the latter is
achieved by leading the flocks over a grid.

· Using Inclined spiked lattice for opening cotton in the initial stages is always a better way of opening the cotton with minimum damages. Ofcourse the production is less with such type of machines. But one should bear in mind that if material is recycled more in the lattice, neps may increase.

· Traditional methods use more number of machines to open and clean natural fibres.

· Mechanical action on fibres causes some deterioration on yarn quality, particularly in terms of neps . Moreover it is true that the staple length of cotton can be significantly shortened .

· Intensive opening in the initial machines like Bale breaker and blending machines means that shorter overall cleaning lines are adequate.

· In a beating operation, the flocks are subjected to a sudden strong blow. The inertia of the impurities accelerated to a high speed, is substantially greater than that of the opened flocks due to the low air resistance
of the impurities. The latter are hurled against the grid and because of their small size, pass between the grid bars into the waste box, while the flocks continue around the periphery of the rotating beater.

· By using a much shorter machine sequence, fibres with better elastic properties and improved spinnability can be produced.

· Air streams are often used in the latest machine sequence, to separate fibres from trash particles by buoyancy differences rather than beating the material against a series of grid bars.

· There are three types of feeding apparatus in the blowroom opening machines

  1. two feed rollers( clamped)
  2. feed roller and a feed table
  3. a feed roller and pedals

· Two feed roller arrangements gives the best forwarding motion, but unfortunately results in greatest clamping distance between the cylinders and the beating element

· feed roller and pedal arrangement gives secure clamping throughout the width and a small clamping distance, which is very critical for an opening machine

· In a feed roller and table arrangement, the clamping distance can be made very small. This gives intensive opening, but clamping over the whole width is poor, because the roller presses only on the highest points
of the web. Thin places in the web can be dragged out of the web as a clump by the beaters

· Honeydew(sugar) or stickiness in cotton affect the process very badly. Because of that production and quality is affected. Particles stick to metal surfaces, and it gets aggravated with heat and pressure. These deposits change the surface characteristics which directly affects the quality and running behaviour. · There are chemicals which can be sprayed to split up the sugar drops to achieve better distribution. But this system should use water solutions which is not recommended due to various reasons.

· It is better to control the climate inside the department when sticky cotton is used. Low temperature ( around 22 degree celcius) and low humidity (45% RH). This requires an expensive air conditioning set up.

· The easiest way to process sticky cotton is to mix with good cotton and to process through two blending machines with 6 and 8 doublings and to install machines which will seggregate a heavier particles
by buoyancy differences.

· General factors which affect the degree of opening , cleaning and fibre loss are,

  1. thickness of the feed web
  2. density of the feed web
  3. fibre coherence
  4. fibre alignment
  5. size of the flocks in the feed (flock size may be same but density is different)
  6. the type of opening device
  7. speed of the opening device
  8. degree of penetration
  9. type of feed (loose or clamped)
  10. distance between feed and opening device
  11. type of opening device
  12. type of clothing
  13. point density of clothing
  14. arrangement of pins, needles, teeth
  15. speeds of the opening devices
  16. throughput speed of material
  17. type of grid bars
  18. area of the grid surface
  19. grid settings
  20. airflow through the grid
  21. condition of pre-opening
  22. quantity of material processed,
  23. position of the machine in the machine sequence
  24. feeding quantity variation to the beater
  25. ambient R.H.%
  26. ambient temperature

· Cotton contains very little dust before ginning. Dust is therefore caused by working of the material on the machine. New dust is being created through shattering of impurities and smashing and rubbing of fibres. However removal of dust is not simple. Dust particles are very light and therefore float with the cotton in the transport stream.Furthermore the particles adhere quite strongly to the fibres. If they are to be eliminated they are to be rubbed off.The main elimination points for adhering dust therefore, are those points in the process at which high fibre/metal friction or high fibre/fibre friction is produced.

· Removal of finest particles of contaminants and fibre fragments can be accomplished by releasing the dust into the air, like by turning the material over, and then removing the dust-contaminated air. Release of dust into the air occurs wherever the raw material is rolled, beaten or thrown about.Accordingly the air at such positions is sucked away. Perforated drums, stationary perforated drums, , stationary combs etc. are some instruments used to remove dust

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