DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES IN TEXTILE ART


by,

 Havva Halaceli

Cukurova University, Faculty of Fine Arts, Department of Textile Design,
Adana, Turkey

This is a digital age, dominated by information, communication and technology-based entertainment. This age is a result of rapid visual information-sharing. In this age, technology enables video sharing, saving every moment as visual data, and it is a result of rapid visual and information sharing. Today, artists use digital technologies as a means of expressing concepts. Woven textiles are also affected by the technological advances. Textiles have been essential for people from ancient times to now, for covering and protecting themselves from heat and cold. Weaving is a fine art form and a product of labor, including Coptic textiles and European tapestries; it can also utilize the speed, selection and color options of digital technologies that result from the mechanization and technological advances in the 20th century. Computerized Jacquard looms are one of the benefits of digital technologies that enable the weaving of complex imagery by allowing individual warp threads to be lifted.

Today, working with digital cameras, scanners and jacquard looms the textile artist becomes a designer and technology becomes a medium serving the artist’s creativity. In this study, the works of textile artists will be examined in view of time, technology and communication.
Keywords: Weaving, digital technology, jacquard loom

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Digital-Technologies-in-Textile-Art

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STAUBLI JACQUARDS


Jacquard weaving solutions:

The world of Stäubli jacquard machines is a fascinating one, in the entire world; countless weaving mills produce innovative high-quality fabrics with these reliable and multipurpose machines. The variety of ranges from the finest silks to the most complex technical textiles and original decorative fabrics. Stäubli electronic control is high-performance machines, benefiting from many years of technical experience. They are distinguished by their high Performance characteristics, the quality of the materials used and their impressive service life. Stäubli Jacquard machines represent a complete range of formats, ranging from 32 to 24576 hooks for producing all types of fabric. know-how to all weaving mills, at the international level .

Exacting requirements and high-performance:

Shedding machines guarantee optimal performance and portability. They perfectly fulfill weaving machine and shed forming requirements, geometries, openings and adjustments are almost unlimited. Weave medications are extremely flexible and can be changed rapidly.With a cam motion, a dobby or Jacquard machine, Stäubli systems allow you to get the most out of weaving machines owing to transmission systems, quick frame connects or through a custom made harness or carbon fibre frames. Stäubli attaches major importance to the reliability and user friendliness of its shed forming machines

Basic construction features of Stäubli Jacquard:

TRANSMISSION

The DX 100 and DX 110 are delivered with the adaptation elements required for each type of weaving machine pre-installed . The transmission is based on a cardan drive with bevel gears, whose position is determined according to the weaving machine to optimize the cardan shaft angle . For wide microprocesred spaces, the optional addition of a modulator accelerates shed opening . The compact structure of DX 100 and DX 110 machines enables them to be used on standard frames and in low ceiling weaving rooms.

CONTROL BOX

Each machine has its own electrical power supply and is equipped with an electronic controller and is equipped with a JC6 electronic controller with touch screen. This user-friendly interface between the user and the DX features the latest generation of microprocessor. A flash disk advantageously replaces hard drive technology and patterns can be transferred either via USB key, external drive or the network. The latter offers multiple possibilities and facilitates weaving room management or several remote sites.

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T H E M6 MODULE

The patented M6 module ensures the connection between the lifting mechanism and the harness. Compact, and engineered from composite materials, the M6 module is sealed and wear resistant and consumes very little energy.

If required, depending on the loads and speeds in use, M6 module can be equipped with two journal bearings (version A), one journal bearing at the bottom and a ball bearing (C) on the top or with two ball bearings (B) . Module replacement is easy and quick .

The rollers built into the module make hooking and unhooking the harness cords easy – the system is also available with QUICK LINK.

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SELECTING HOOKS IN A MODULE

The double roller enables the upper and lower shed position of the harness cords in double lift.

Low shed position

The electromagnet (f) is activated. The retaining hook (c) does not retain the mobile hook (a) which follows the lowering knife (e).

Upper shed position

The electromagnet (f) is not activated. The retaining hook (c) retains the mobile hook (a).

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Low shed Upper shed

SIMPLIFIED KINEMATICS

The kinematics of Stäubli Jacquard machines is characterised by:

· Controlled by a single cam housing running in an oil bath

· An extremely simplified transmission via a coaxial shaft system

· Perfect mass balance of the moving parts for optimally smooth running

· Simple and fast adjustment of lift and inclined shed

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QUICK LINK®

The QUICK LINK connection system was developed for speedy hooking and unhooking of the harness cord.

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Quick link connection Harness BLOBAR automatic blowing

HARNESSES

Developed thanks to Stäubli’s know-how, our harnesses are designed for all applications: labels, silk goods, lining, clothing, upholstery fabrics, table and bed linen, automotive seats, airbags, bedspreads, terry cloth and pile fabric . Our harness specialists have developed a line of harness cords, heddles and springs depending on the article, the characteristics of the warp yarn and the weaving conditions.

The comber boards are made and drilled to customer specifications. The links between the harness cords and the heddles, the heddles and the springs are designed to meet all your needs.

BLOBAR BLOWING SYSTEM

Designed to facilitate the cleaning of harness springs, Stäubli developed the BLOBAR automatic blowing system, at the back of the down pull frame. The pneumatic blowing device limits fl y deposit and facilitates manual cleaning.

The Formation of Woven Velour by Jacquard

Velour – “From the Latin vellosus, meaning hairy. The material is a thick bodied, close napped, soft type of cloth. Generally speaking, a velour is a cloth that runs from 10 to 20 ounces per yard, and is given a face finish”

Where we found Velour fabrics?

Woven velvets and velours can be found in every textile market: Apparel, Automotive, Home Furnishing, Contract Upholstery, Transportation and Industrial/Specialty Fabrics. Each use is represented by a uniquely constructed product depending upon the cost, aesthetics, and performance expectations of the customers. The two largest markets for this product are Automotives and Home Furnishings.

How to form?

Although there are other ways of forming a velour fabric such as the wire method, primary focus will be on the production of current transportation velour. The method of choice for producing velour today is to use a double insertion rapier machine.

The shedding motion is usually controlled either by jacquard head. The pile warp yarn is either pulled (jacquard) into the fell of the fabric.

The sandwich structure is made by the interlacing of the pile warp yarns between the picks of the top and bottom pieces of fabric.

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Woven Construction Sandwich

  • So the basic requirement of a lifting system which will form multi shade

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Industrial Revolution – Timeline of Textile Machinery


Several inventions in textile machinery occurred in a relatively short time period during the industrial revolution.

  • 1733 Flying shuttle invented by John Kay – an improvement to looms that enabled weavers to weave faster.
  • 1742 Cotton mills were first opened in England.
  • 1764 Spinning jenny invented by James Hargreaves – the first machine to improve upon the spinning wheel.
  • 1764 Water frame invented by Richard Arkwright – the first powered textile machine.
  • 1769Arkwright patented the water frame.
  • 1770Hargreaves patented the Spinning Jenny.
  • 1773The first all-cotton textiles were produced in factories.
  • 1779Crompton invented the spinning mule that allowed for greater control over the weaving process
  • 1785Cartwright patented the power loom. It was improved upon by William Horrocks, known for his invention of the variable speed batton in 1813.
  • 1787Cotton goods production had increased 10 fold since 1770.
  • 1789 Samuel Slater brought textile machinery design to the US.
  • 1790Arkwright built the first steam powered textile factory in Nottingham, England.
  • 1792Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin – a machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber.
  • 1804 Joseph Marie Jacquard invented the Jacquard Loom that weaved complex designs. Jacquard invented a way of automatically controlling the warp and weft threads on a silk loom by recording patterns of holes in a string of cards*.
  • 1813 William Horrocks invented the variable speed batton (for an improved power loom).
  • 1856William Perkin invented the first synthetic dye.