STANDARD COTTON FABRICS


TEXTILE TERMS & DEFINITIONS

Armure
Fibre : Cotton, silk, wool, rayon, synthetics, and blends.
Weave : Plain, twill, or rib, background often has a small design either jacquard or dobby made with warp floats on surface giving a raised effect.
Characteristics : Design is often in two colours and raised. The name was derived from original fabric which was woven with a small interlaced design of chain armor and used for military equipment during the Crusades.
Uses : a rich looking dress fabric, draperies, or upholstery.
Batiste
Fibre : Cotton, also rayon and wool.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Named after Jean Baptiste, a French linen weaver. Light weight, soft, semi-sheer fabric which resembles nainsook, but finer. It belongs to the lawn family; almost transparent. It is made of tightly twisted, combed yarns and mercerized finish. Sometimes it is printed or embroidered. In a heavier weight, it is used for foundation garments and linings in a plain, figured, striped, or flowered design. Considered similar to nainsook but finer and lighter in weight. Now usually made of 100% polyester distinguished by slubs in filling direction.

Birdseye
Fibre : In cotton and Linen or blend of rayon staple and cotton.
Weave : Usually dobby
Characteristics : Very soft, light weight, and absorbent. Woven with a loosely twisted filling to increase absorbency. Launders very well. No starch is applied because the absorption properties must be of the best. Material must be free from any foreign matter. It is also called “diaper cloth” and is used for that purpose as well as very good towelling. Also “novelty” birdseye effects used as summer dress fabrics.

Broadcloth
Fibre : Cotton and silk, and rayon. Very different than wool broadcloth.
Weave : Plain weave and in most cotton broadcloths made with a very fine crosswise rib weave.
Characteristics : Originally indicated a cloth woven on a wide loom. Very closely woven and in cotton, made from either carded or combed yarns. The filling is heavier and has less twist. It is finer than poplin when made with a crosswise rib and it is lustrous and soft with a good texture. Thread count ranges from high quality 144 x 6 count down to 80 x 60. Has a smooth finish. May be bleached, dyed, or printed; also is often mercerized. Wears very well. If not of a high quality or treated it wrinkles very badly. Finest quality made from Egyptain or combed pima cotton – also sea island.
Uses : Shirts, dresses, particularly the tailored type in plain colours, blouses, summer wear of all kinds.

Brocade
Fibre : Cotton brocade often has the ground of cotton and the pattern of rayon and silk. Pattern is in low relief.
Weave : Jacquard and dobby
Characteristics : Rich, heavy, elaborate design effect. Sometimes with coloured or metallic threads making the design usually against a satin weave background. This makes the figures stand out. The figures in brocade are rather loose, while in damask the figure threads are actually bound into the material. The pattern may be satin on a twill ground or twill on a satin ground. Often reversible. The motifs may be of flowers, foliage, Scrollwork, Pastoral scenes, or other designs. The price range is wide. Generally reputed to have been developed from the latin name “brocade” which means to figure.
Uses : All types of after 5 wear, church vestments, interior furnishings, and state robes.

Buckram
Fibre : Cotton, some in linen, synthetics.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Cheap, low-textured, loose weave, very heavily sized and stiff. Also, 2 fabrics are glued together; one is open weave and the other much finer. Some is also made in linen in a single fabric. Also called crinoline book muslin or book binding. Name from Bokhara in Southern Russia, where it was first made.
Uses : Used for interlinings and all kinds of stiffening in clothes, book binding, and for millinery (because it can be moistened and shaped). Used to give stiffness to leather garments not as stiff and often coloured is called “tarlatan”. Softens with heat. Can be shaped while warm.

Calico
Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain – usually a low count.
Characteristics : Originated in Calcutta, India, and is one of the oldest cottons. Rather coarse and light in weight. Pattern is printed on one side by discharge or resist printing. It is not always fast in colours. Sized for crispness but washes out and requires starch each time. Designs are often geometric in shape, but originally elaborate designs of birds, trees, and flowers. Inexpensive. Similar to percale. Very little on the market today, but the designs are still in use on other fabrics and sold as “calico print.”
Uses : Housedresses, aprons, patchwork quilts.

Cambric
Fibre : Cotton, also linen.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Soft, closely woven, light. Either bleached or piece dyed. Highly mercerized, lint free. Calendered on the right side with a slight gloss. Lower qualities have a smooth bright finish. Similar to batiste but is stiffer and fewer slubs. Launders very well. Has good body, sews and finishes well. Originally made in Cambria, France of linen and used for Church embroidery and table linens.
Uses : Handkerchiefs, underwear, slips, nightgowns, children’s dresses, aprons, shirts and blouses.

Candlewick Fabric
Fibre : Cotton – also wool.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : An unbleached muslin bed sheeting (also called Kraft muslin) used as a base fabric on which a chenille effect is formed by application of candlewick (heavy plied yarn) loops, which are then cut to give the fuzzy effect and cut yarn appearance of true chenille yarn. May be uncut also. (True chenille is a cotton, wool, silk, or rayon yarn which has a pile protruding all around at slight angles and stimulates a caterpillar. Chenille is the French word for caterpillar.)
Uses : Bedspreads, drapes, housecoats, beach wear.

Canton Flannel
Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Four harness warp-faced twill weave.
Characteristics : The filling yarn is a very loosely twisted and soft and later brushed to produced a soft nap on the back, the warp is medium in size. The face is a twill. Heavy, warm, strong and absorbent. Named for Canton, China where it was first made. Comes bleached, unbleached, dyed, and some is printed.
Uses : Interlinings, sleeping garments, linings, coverings, work gloves.

Chambray

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain weave or dobby designs on a plain-weave ground.
Characteristics : Made with a dyed warp and a white or unbleached filling. Both carded and combed yarns used. Has a white selvedge. Some woven with alternating white and coloured warp. “Faded” look. Has very soft colouring. Some made with stripes, checks or embroidered. Smooth, strong, closely woven, soft and has a slight lustre. Wears very well, easy to sew, and launders well. If not crease resistant, it wrinkles easily. Originated in Cobrai, France it was first made for sunbonnets.
Uses : Children’s wear, dresses, shirts and blouses, aprons, all kinds of sportswear.

Chamois Cloth
Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Fabric is napped, sheared, and dyed to simulate chamois leather. It is stiffer than kasha and thicker, softer and more durable than flannelette. Must be designated as “cotton chamoise-colour cloth”.
Uses : Dusters, interlining, storage bags for articles to prevent scratching.

Chamoisette
Fibre : Cotton, also rayon and nylon.
Weave : Knitted, double knit construction.
Characteristics : A fine, firmly knit fabric. Has a vary short soft nap. Wears well. Nylon chamoisette is more often called “glove silk”.
Uses : Gloves.

Cheesecloth
Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Originally used as a wrapping material for pressing cheese. Loosely woven, thin, light in weight, open in construction, and soft. Carded yarns are always used. It is also called gauze weave. When woven in 36″ widths it is called tobacco cloth, When an applied finish is added, it is called buckram, crinoline, or bunting.
Uses : In the grey cloth, it is used for covering tobacco plants, tea bags and wiping cloths.
Finished cloth is used for curtains, bandages, dust cloths, cheap bunting, hat lining, surgical gauze, fly nets, food wrapping, e.g. meat and cheese, costumes and basket tops.

Chenille Fabric
Fibre : Cotton and any of the main textile fibres.
Weave : Mostly plain weave.
Characteristics : Warp yarn of any major textile fibre. Filling of chenille yarns (Has a pile protruding all around at right angles). The word is French for caterpillar and fabric looks hairy. Do not confuse with tufted effects obtained without the use of true Chenille filling.
Uses : Millinery, rugs, decorative fabrics, trimmings, upholstery.

Chinchilla
Fibre : Cotton or wool, and some manmade and synthetics.
Weave : Sateen or twill construction with extra fillings for long floats.
Characteristics : Does not resemble true chinchillas fur. Has small nubs on the surface of the fabric which are made by the chincilla machine. It attacks the face and causes the long floats to be worked into nubs and balls. Cotton warp is often used because it cannot show from either side. Made in medium and heavy weights. Very warm and cozy fabrics. Takes its name from Chinchilla Spain where it was invented.
Uses : In cotton, used for baby’s blankets and bunting bags.

Chino
Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Twill (left hand)
Characteristics : Combined two-ply warp and filling. Has a sheen that remains. Fabric was purchased in China (thus the name) by the U.S. Army for uniforms. Originally used for army cloth in England many years before and dyed olive-drab. Fabric is mercerized and sanforized. Washs and wears extremely well with a minimum of care.
Uses : Army uniforms, summer suits and dresses, sportswear.

Chintz
Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Has bright gay figures, large flower designs, birds and other designs. Also comes in plain colours. Several types of glaze. The wax and starch glaze produced by friction or glazing calendars will wash out. The resin glaze finish will not wash out and withstand drycleaning. Also comes semi-glazed. Unglazed chintz is called cretonne. Named from the Indian word “Chint” meaning ” broad, gaudily printed fabric”.
Uses : Draperies, slipcovers, dresses, sportwear.

Corduroy
Fibre : Cotton, rayon, and other textile fibres.
Weave : Filling Pile with both plain and twill back.
Characteristics : Made with an extra filling yarn. In the velvet family of fabrics. Has narrow medium and wide wales, also thick n’thin or checkerboard patterns. Wales have different widths and depths. Has to be cut all one way with pile running up. Most of it is washable and wears very well. Has a soft lustre.
Uses : Children’s clothes of all kinds, dresses, jackets, skirts, suits, slacks, sportswear, men’s trousers, jackets, bedspreads, draperies, and upholstery.

Crepe
Fibre : Worsted cotton, wool, silk, man-made synthetics.
Weave : Mostly plain, but various weaves.
Characteristics : Has a crinkled, puckered surface or soft mossy finish. Comes in different weights and degrees of sheerness. Dull with a harch dry feel. Woolen crepes are softer than worsted. If it is fine, it drapes well. Has very good wearing qualities. Has a very slimming effect.
Uses : Depending on weight, it is used for dresses of all types, including long dinner dresses, suits, and coats.

Crettone
Fibre : Cotton, linen, rayon
Weave : Plain or twill.
Characteristics : Finished in widths from 30 to 50 inches. Quality and price vary a great deal. The warp counts are finer than the filling counts which are spun rather loose. Strong substantial and gives good wear. Printed cretonne often has very bright colours and patterns. The fabric has no lustre (when glazed, it is called chintz). Some are warp printed and if they are, they are usually completely reversible. Designs run from the conservative to very wild and often completely cover the surface.
Uses : Bedspreads, chairs, draperies, pillows, slipcovers, coverings of all kinds, beach wear, sportwear.

Denim
Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Twill – right hand – may be L2/1 or L3/1.
Characteristics : Name derived from French “serge de Nimes”. Originally had dark blue, brown or dark grey warp with a white or gray filling giving a mottled look and used only for work clothes. Now woven in bright and pastel colours with stripes as well as plain. Long wearing, it resists snags and tears, Comes in heavy and lighter weights.
Uses : Work clothes, overalls, caps, uniforms, bedspreads, slipcovers, draperies, upholstery, sportswear, of all kinds, dresses and has even been used for evening wear.

Dimity
Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain weave with a crosswise or lengthwise spaced rib or crossbar effect.
Characteristics : A thin sheer with corded spaced stripes that could be single, double or triple grouping. Made of combed yarn and is 36” wide. Has a crisp texture which remains fairly well after washing. Resembles lawn in the white state. It is easy to sew and manipulate and launders well. Creases unless creaseresistant. May be bleached, dyed, or printed and often printed with a small rosebud design. It is mercerized and has a soft lustre.
Uses : Children’s dresses, women’s dresses, and blouses, infant’s wear, collar and cuff sets, basinettes, bedspreads, curtains, underwear. Has a very young look.

Domett Flannel
Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain and twill
Characteristics : Also spelled domet. Generally made in white. Has a longer nap than on flannelette. Soft filling yarns of medium or light weight are used to obtain the nap. The term domett is interchangeable with “outing flannel” but it is only made in a plain weave. Both are soft and fleecy and won’t irritate the skin. Any sizing or starching must be removed before using. Outing flannel is also piece-dyed and some printed and produced in a spun rayon also.
Uses : Mostly used for infants wear, interlinings, polished cloths.

Pique
Fibre: Cotton, rayon, synthetics.
Weave: Lengthwise rib, English crosswise rib or cord weave.
Characteristics: Originally was a crosswise rib but now mostly a lenghtwise rib and the same as bedford cord. Ribs are often filled to give a more pronounced wale (cord weave). Comes in medium to heavy weights. It is generally made of combed face yarns and carded stuffer yarns. It is durable and launders well. Wrinkles badly unless given a wrinkle-free finish. Various prices. Also comes in different patterns besides wales. The small figured motifs are called cloque. Some of the patterns are birdseye (small diamond), waffle (small squares). honeycomb (like the design on honeycomb honey). When the fabric begins to wear out it wears at the corded areas first.
Uses : Trims, collars, cuffs, millinery, infants wear, particularly coats, and bonnets, women’s and children’s summer dresses, skirts and blouses, shirts, playclothes, and evening gowns.

Plisse
Fibre : Cotton, rayon, and others.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Could be made from any fine material, e.g. organdy, lawn, etc. Treated with caustic soda solution which shrinks parts of the goods either all
over or in stripes giving a blistered effect. Similar to seersucker in appearance. This crinkle may or may not be removed after washing. This depends on the quality of the fabric. It does not need to be ironed, but if a double thickness, such as a hem needs a little, it should be done after the fabric is thoroughly dry.
Uses : Sleepwear, housecoats, dresses, blouses for women and children, curtains, bedspreads, and bassinettes. Often it is called wrinkle crepe and may be made with a wax/shrink process (the waxed parts remain free of shrinkage and cause the ripples).

Point d’esprit
Fibre : Cotton – some in silk.
Weave : Leno, gauze, knotted, or mesh.
Characteristics : First made in France in 1834. Dull surfaced net with various sized holes. Has white or coloured dots individually spaced or in groups.
Uses : Curtains, bassinettes, evening gowns

Poplin
Fibre : Cotton, wool, and other textile fibres.
Weave : Crosswise rib. The filling is cylindrical. Two or three times as many warp as weft per inch.
Characteristics : Has a more pronounced filling effect than broadcloth. It is mercerized and has quite a high lustre. It may be bleached, or dyed (usually vat dyes are used) or printed. Heavy poplin is given a water-repellent finish for outdoor use. Originally made with silk warp and a heavier wool filling. Some also mildew-proof, fire-retardant, and some given a suede finish. American cotton broadcloth shirting is known as poplin in Great Britain.
Uses : Sportswear of all kinds, shirts, boy’s suits, uniforms, draperies, blouses, dresses.

Sailcloth
Fibre : Cotton, linen, nylon.
Weave : Plain, some made with a crosswise rib.
Characteristics : A strong canvas or duck. The weights vary, but most often the count is around 148×60. Able to withstand the elements (rain, wind and snow). Sailcloth for clothing is sold frequently and is much lighter weight than used for sails.
Uses : Sails, awnings, and all kinds of sportswear for men, women, and children.

Sateen
Fibre : Cotton, some also made in rayon.
Weave : Sateen, 5-harness, filling-face weave.
Characteristics : Lustrous and smooth with the sheen in a filling direction. Carded or combed yarns are used. Better qualities are mercerized to give a higher sheen. Some are only calendered to produce the sheen but this disappears with washing and is not considered genuine sateen. May be bleached, dyed, or printed. Difficult to make good bound buttonholes on it as it has a tendency to slip at the seams.
Uses : Dresses, sportswear, blouses, robes, pyjamas, linings for draperies, bedspreads, slip covers.

Seersucker
Fibre : Cotton, rayon, synthetics.
Weave : Plain, slack tension weave.
Characteristics : Term derived from the Persian “shirushaker”, a kind of cloth, literally “milk and sugar”. Crepe-stripe effect. Coloured stripes are often used. Dull surface. Comes in medium to heavy weights. the woven crinkle is produced by alternating slack and tight yarns in the warp. This is permanent. Some may be produced by pressing or chemicals, which is not likely to be permanent – called plisse. Durable, gives good service and wear. May be laundered without ironing. Can be bleached, yarn dyed, or printed. Some comes in a check effect.
Uses : Summer suits for men, women, and children, coats, uniforms, trims, nightwear, all kinds of sportswear, dresses, blouses, children’s wear of all kinds, curtains, bedspreads, slipcovers.

Shantung
Fibre : Cotton, silk, rayon, synthetics.
Weave : Plain.
Characteristics : It is a raw silk made from Tussah silk or silk waste, depending on the quality. It is quite similar to pongee, but has a more irregular surface, heavier, and rougher. Most of the slubs are in the filling direction. Wrinkles quite a bit. Underlining helps to prevent this as well as slipping at the seams. Do not fit too tightly, if long wear is expected. Comes in various weights, colours and also printed.
Uses : Dresses, suits, and coats.

Terry cloth
Fibre : Cotton and some linen.
Weave : Pile, also jacquard and dobby combined with pile.
Characteristics : Either all over loops on both sides of the fabric or patterned loops on both sides. Formed with an extra warp yarn. long wearing, easy to launder and requires no ironing. May be bleached, dyed, or printed. Better qualities have a close, firm, underweave, with very close loops. Very absorbent, and the longer the loop, the greater the absorbency. When the pile is only on one side, it is called “Turkish towelling.”
Uses : Towels, beachwear, bathrobes, all kinds of sportswear, children’s wear, slip covers, and draperies.

Tiking
Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Usually twill (L2/1 or L3/1), some jacquard, satin, and dobby.
Characteristics : Very tightly woven with more warp than filling yarns. Very sturdy and strong, smooth and lustrous. Usually has white and coloured stripes, but some patterned (floral). Can be made water-repellent, germ resistant, and feather-proof.
Uses : Pillow covers, mattress coverings, upholstering and some sportswear. `Bohemian ticking” has a plain weave, a very high texture, and is featherproof. Lighter weight than regular ticking. Patterned with narrow coloured striped on a white background or may have a chambray effect by using a white or unbleached warp with a blue or red filling.

Advertisements

Technical Textiles – A Vision of Future


image

Textiles are no more limited for use as apparels clothing is just are but not the only purpose of textiles with the rapid changes in the social economic structure of our society. Many efforts are made to some and protect human life. Textiles come to our help in every walk of life. Similarly, textiles enhancing the quality of human life trough protection against various hazards as well as protection of environment are today’s priorities were scientist all around the world are breaking their heads. Technical textiles are the fastest growing area of textile consumption in the world. As per the market survey it has projected an average growth rate of 4% for technical textiles during the period 1995-2005.

In most of the developed countries, technical textiles already account for 4% of the total textile production. Even in many developing countries, the proportion is well above 10%. At present, India’s contribution in this area is negligible at about 0.2%.However, due to competition from neighboring countries ad emerging economic power, India has tremendous potential for production, Consumption and export of technical textile. In the circumstances, textiles are playing major role through its diversified applications and undoubtedly the future of this technical textiles appears tom be bright in this, lot of uses are there. They are medical textiles, protective textiles, agricultural textiles, geo textiles, automotive textiles, smart textiles and industrial textiles.

please click following link to download full article.

technical-textiles

DREF Spinning


  • Introduction

Friction (DREF) spinning system is an Open-end and or Core sheath type of spinning system. Along with the frictional forces in the spinning zone the yarn formation takes place. The DREF spinning system is used to produce yarns with high delivery rate(about 300mpm). Still it has to gain its importance with the growth along with technical textiles in India. Amongst the spinning systems, DREF provides a good platform for production of core spun yarns due its spinning principle.It offers less spinning tension to the core and core will be positioned exactly at the centre of the yarn.
Development of DREF core-spun yarns unveils a path for new products including high performance textiles, sewing threads and in the apparels due to its exceptional strength, outstanding abrasion resistance, consistence performance in sewing operation, adequate elasticity for the stretch requirements, excellent resistance to perspiration, ideal wash  and wear performance and permanent press.

  • Principle of Friction (DREF) spinning Systems

image

The friction spinning system consists of opening & individualization of fibres from slivers, reassembling of individualized fibres, twisting and winding of yarn. The figure 1 describes the DREF spinning principle where the opened fibres made roll with an aid of a mechanical roller for reassembling and twisting. Due to separate yarn winding and method of twist insertion, it has capability to go for high production rate.

  • DREF 1

DREF-1 friction spinning system was developed in 1973 by Dr.Fehrer.A.G. of Austria.The schematic diagram of DREF 1 spinner is shown in the figure 2.The fibres were opened with an opening roller and allowed to fall on a single perforated cylindrical drum slot ,which has negative pressure for fibre collection.The rotation of the drum impart twist to fibre assembly .

image

The ratio of perforated drum to yarn surface is very large, hence the drum speed can be kept relatively low, even if one takes the unavoidable slippage into account. Due to the absence of positive control over the fibres assembly, slippage occurred between the fibre assembly and perforated roller, which reduced twist efficiency. Hence this development could not be commercialized.

  • DREF-2image

This is the development with earlier machine. DREF-2 was exhibited in the year 1975 at ITMA exhibition. The feasibility of using two perforated rotating cylinders, (as fibre collecting means), while at the same time the spinning-in of fibres into yarn occurred. It operates on the basis of mechanical/aerodynamic spinning system with an internal suction and same direction of drums rotation. The schematic diagram of the DREF-2 friction spinner is shown in the figure3. Drafted slivers are opened into individual fibres by a rotating carding drum covered with saw tooth type wire clothing. The individualized fibres are stripped off from the carding drum by centrifugal force supported by an air stream from the blower and transported into the nip of two perforated friction drums where they are held by suction. The fibres are sub-sequentially twisted by mechanical friction on the surface of the drums. Suction through the perforations of the drums assists this process besides helping in the removal of dust and dirt, thereby contributing to production of cleaner yarn. The low yarn strength and the requirement of more number of fibres in yarn cross-section(minimum 80-100 fibres) were restricted the DREF-2 spinning with
coarser counts (0.3-6s Ne).

  • DREF-3

The DREF-3 machine is the next version of DREF 2 for improving the yarn quality came to the market in the year 1981.Yarns up to 18s Ne. can be spun thro this system.

This is a core-sheath type spinning arrangement. The sheath fibres are attached to the core fibres by the false twist generated by the rotating action of drums. Two drafting units are used in this system, one for the core fibres and other for the sheath fibres. This system produces a variety of core-sheath type structures and multi-component yarns, through selective combination and placement of different materials in core and sheath. Delivery rate is about 300 m/min. DREF 3 schematic diagram is shown in the figure 4.

  • DREF-5

It was developed by Schalafhorst, Suessen and Fehrer Inc. The range of count to be spun from this system is from 16’s to 40’s Ne.Production speed is up to 200m/min.The schematic diagram of the DREF 5 is shown in the figure 5. The individualized fibres from a single sliver are fed through a fibre duct into the spinning nip at an angle to the yarn axis, so that they are stretched as far as possible, when fed into the nip[7]. This spinning system was not commercialized due to some reasons.

  • DREF-2000

It is the latest development in friction spinning demonstrated in ITMA 99. DREF-2000 employs a rotating carding drum for opening the slivers into single fibres and a specially designed system being used for sliver retention. The fibres stripped off from front the carding drum by centrifugal force and carried into the nip of the two perforated spinning drums. The fibres are subsequently twisted by mechanical friction on the surface of the drums, which rotates in the same direction. The process assisted by air suction through the drum perforations. Insertion of twist in ‘S’ and ‘Z’ direction is possible without mechanical alterations to the machine. Yarns upto 14.5s Ne can be produced at speeds of 250 m/min.

  • DREF-3000

In the ITMA 2003, the first public appearance of the DREF 3000 was made. The yarn can be spun form 0.3Ne to 14.5Ne.The features of DREF 3000 includes a drafting unit and opening head with infinitely variable drive control, spinning units with two infinitely variable suction spinning drums, take-off and winding units with infinitely variable speeds and filament guide with monitoring device. The drafting unit can handle all types of synthetic fibres, special fibres such as aramid, FR and pre-oxidized fibres, polyimides, phenol resin fibres (e.g. Kynol), melamine fibres (e.g. Basofil), melt fibres (e.g. PA, PES, PP), natural fibres (wool, cotton, jute, linen, flax, etc.), as well as glass fibres in blends with other materials. The DREF 3000 processes these fibres in the form of slivers composed of one type of fibre, or using slivers with differing fibre qualities at one and the same time. Slivers with a homogenous fibre mixture can also be employed. DREF 3000 core yarns offer high output, breakage-free spinning and weaving mill operation and thus up to 95% efficiency can be achieved.

  • Yarn formation in Friction spinning system

The mechanism of yarn formation is quite complex. It consists of three distinct operations, namely: Feeding of fibres, Fibres integration and Twist insertion.

  • Feeding:

The individualized fibres are transported by air currents and deposited in the spinning zone. The mode of fibre feed has a definite effect on fibre extent and fibre configuration in yarn and on its properties. There are two methods of fibre feed 1) Direct feed and 2)Indirect feed.

image

In case of direct feed, fibres are fed directly onto the rotating fibre mass that outer part of the yarn tail. In indirect feed, fibres are first accumulated on the in-going roll and then transferred to the yarn tail. Figure 7 (a) and (b) are showing the above methods of fibre feed.

  • Fibres Integration:

The fibres through feed tube assembles onto a yarn core/tail within the shear field, is provided by two rotating spinning drums and the yarn core is in between them. The shear causes sheath fibres to wrap around the yarn core. The fibre orientation is highly dependent on the decelerating fibres arriving at the assembly point through the turbulent flow. The fibres in the friction drum have two probable methods for integration of incoming fibres to the sheath. One method, the fibre assembles completely on to perforated drum before their transfer to the rotating sheath. In the other method, fibres are laid directly on to rotating sheath.

  • Twist insertion:

There has been lot of deal with research on the twisting process in friction spinning. In friction spinning, the fibres are applied twist with more or less one at a time without cyclic differentials in tension in the twisting zone. Therefore, fibre migration may not take place in friction spun yarns. The mechanism of twist insertion for core type friction spinning and open end friction spinning are different,which are described below.

Twist insertion in core-type friction spinning:
In core type friction spinning, core is made of a filament or a bundle of staple fibres is false twisted by the spinning drum. The sheath fibres are deposited on the false twisted core surface and are wrapped helically over the core with varying helix angles. It is believed that the false twist in the core gets removed once the yarn is emerged from the spinning drums, so that this yarn has virtually twist less core. However, it is quite possible for some amount of false twist to remain in the fact that the sheath entraps it during yarn formation in the spinning zone.

Twist insertion in Open end type friction spinning
In open end type friction spinning the fibres in the yarn are integrated as stacked cone. The fibres in the surface of the yarn found more compact and good packing density than the axial fibres in the yarn. The Figure 8 shown the arrangement of fibres in the DREF-3 yarn as stacked cone shape .

image

  • Structure of the yarn tail:

The yarn tail can be considered as a loosely constructed conical mass of fibres, formed at the nip of the spinning drums. It is of very porous and lofty structure.The fibres rotating at very high speed. Lord and Rust have been studied a number of short-duration photographs of the yarn tail during the yarn formation. In these photographs, they located an appendage protruding from the open-end of the yarn tail and called it as the tip of the tail. Observing through the perforated drums, they found this tip to be very unstable, flickering about like a candle flame a draught. With the help of the photographs, they have concluded that the yarn tail is enlarged and torpedo-shaped being squashed by the nip of the perforated drums and the fibres on its surface are loosely wrapped. Moving away from the tip, these wrappings have been shown to
become tighter. They have further added that the surface structure of the tail consists of outstanding fibres, which stand out almost radically.

  • Spinning Tension for DREF yarns

Figure 9 explains that the Friction spun yarns have less spinning tension during the yarn formation. Due to less tension during the spinning the core component can be placed exactly at the centre of the yarn.

image

  • Friction Spun Yarns Properties:

Friction spun yarns (DREF) yarns have bulky appearance (100-140% bulkier than the ring spun yarns).The twist is not uniform and found with loopy yarn surface. Friction spun yarns with high %age of core have high stiffness. Friction spun yarns are usually weak as compared to other yarns. The yarns possess only 60% of the tenacity of ring-spun yarns and about 90% of rotor spun-yarns. The increased twist and wrapping of the sheath over the core improve the cohesion between the core and sheath and within the sheath.

The breaking elongation ring, rotor and friction spun yarns have been found to be equal. Better relative tenacity efficiency is achieved during processing of cotton on rotor and friction spinning as compared to ring spinning system.

Depending on the type of fibre, the differences in strength of these yarns differ in magnitude. It has been reported that 100% polyester yarns, this strength deficiency is 32% whereas for 100% viscose yarns, it ranges from 0-25%. On the other hand, in polyester-cotton blend, DREF yarns perform better than their ring-spun counterparts. A 70/30% blend yarn has been demonstrated to be superior in strength by 25%. The breaking strength of ring yarns to be maximum followed by the rotor yarn and then 50/50 core-sheath DREF-3 yarn.

DREF yarns have been seen to be inferior in terms of unevenness, imperfections, strength variability and hairiness. DREF yarns occupy an intermediate position between ring-spun and rotor spun yarns as far as short hairs and total hairiness s concerned. For hairs longer than 3mm, the friction spun yarns are more hairy than the ring spun yarns. Rotor spun yarns show the least value in both the values. DREF yarns are most irregular in terms of twist and linear density while ring spun yarns are most even.

Chattopadhyay and Banerjee have studied the frictional behaviour of ring, rotor, friction spun yarns of 59 and 98.4 Tex spun from cotton, polyester, viscose fibres, with varying levels of twist. The yarn to yarn and yarn to guide roller friction was measured at different sliding speeds and tension ratios. However for polyester fibres, the rotor spun yarn showed highest friction, followed by friction and ring spun yarns.

  • Advantages of Friction spinning system

The forming yarn rotates at high speed compare to other rotating elements. It can spin yarn at very high twist insertion rates (ie.3,00,000 twist/min). The yarn tension is practically independent of speed and hence very high production rates (up to 300 m/min) can be attainable. The yarns are bulkier than rotor yarns.

The DREF II yarns are used in many applications. Blankets for the home application range, hotels and military uses etc. DREF fancy yarns used for the interior decoration, wall coverings, draperies and filler yarn. Core spun yarns thro this friction spinning are used in shoes, ropes and industrial cable manufacturing. Filler cartridge for liquid filtration also effectively made with these yarns. Secondary backing for tufted carpets can be produced with waste fibres in this spinning system .Upholstery, table cloths, wall coverings, curtains, hand-made carpets, bed coverings and other decorative fabrics can be produced economically by DREF Spinning system. Heavy flame-retardant fabrics, conveyor belts, clutches and brake linings, friction linings for automobile industry, packets and gaskets are some examples were the DREF yarns can be effectively used.

The DREF-3 yarns made fabrics used in many applications like backing fabrics for printing, belt inserts, electrical insulation, hoses, filter fabrics and felts made from mono-filaments core. Hot air filtration and wet filtration in food and sugar industries these yarns made fabrics are used. It also used in clutch lining and brake lining for automotive industries.he multi-component yarns manufactured using DREF 3000 technology are mainly employed for technical textiles of the highest quality. They provide heat and wear protection, excellent dimensional stability, outstanding suitability for dyeing and coating, wearer comfort, long service life , as well as a range of other qualitative and economic advantages. These include cost savings due to the use of less expensive materials, special fibres and wires as yarn cores. Apart from their strength, DREF 3000 yarns are also notable for their good abrasion-resistance,uniformity and excellent Uster values compare to previous systems.

  • Limitations of Friction spinning system

Low yarn strength and extremely poor fibre orientation made the friction spun yarns very weak.The extent of disorientation and buckling of fibres are predominant with longer and finer fibres.Friction spun yarns have higher snarling tendency. High air consumption of this system leads to high power consumption.  The twist variation from surface to core is quite high; this is another reason for the low yarn strength. It is difficult to hold spinning conditions as constant.  The spinning system is limited by drafting and fibre transportation speeds.

Website: http://drefcorp.com

Textile sector losing its sheen in Gujarat :Study


PTI | 06:11 PM,Nov 10,2011

Vadodara, Nov 10 (PTI) The textile manufacturing industry, the largest employer in Gujarat, after agriculture, is slowly losing its sheen in the state, according to a research study by Knight Frank India. The report provides extensive scenario of states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka that are identified as leaders in manufacturing capabilities. According to the study, released recently, the textile industy employs close to two lakh people accounting for 18 per cent of total manufacturing workforce in Gujarat. The share of textile in the state’s total manufacturing output has come down to 6 percent from 12 in the last ten years, it said. It further said that even the number of factories has decreased by 22 per cent to 1,523 from 1,957 a decade ago. This is in sharp contrast to Tamil Nadu where the number of factories in textile sector has increased by more than 1.5 times in the last 10 years. According to the Knight Frank Output Specialisation Matrix, textile is placed in the ‘Lost Opportunity’ quadrant meaning that the state is losing its specialisation in the sector compared to rest of India. Talking to PTI today, Dr Samantak Das, National Head, Research, Knight Frank India said, “The erstwhile textile hubs of Ahmedabad and Surat are gradually losing out to Tirupur and Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu. Going forward textile sector output will grow annually by 12 pc in next five years. However this will still be lower than Tamil Nadu’s 14 pc growth,” Das said. He however said the loss of textile in the state will be compensated by gains in emerging sectors such as Automobile and Engineering. “Gujarat has attracted huge amount of investment in the Automobile sector with companies such as Tata Motors, Peugeot and Ford setting up large production facilities in the state,” he said. (MORE) PTI COR DK DK

Ref:-http://ibnlive.in.com

STANDARD COTTON FABRICS


  • Armure

Fibre : Cotton, silk, wool, rayon, synthetics, and blends.
Weave : Plain, twill, or rib, background often has a small design either jacquard or dobby made with warp floats on surface giving a raised effect.
Characteristics : Design is often in two colours and raised. The name was derived from original fabric which was woven with a small interlaced design of chain armor and used for military equipment during the Crusades.
Uses : a rich looking dress fabric, draperies, or upholstery.

  • Batiste

Fibre : Cotton, also rayon and wool.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Named after Jean Baptiste, a French linen weaver. Light weight, soft, semi-sheer fabric which resembles nainsook, but finer. It belongs to the lawn family; almost transparent. It is made of tightly twisted, combed yarns and mercerized finish. Sometimes it is printed or embroidered. In a heavier weight, it is used for foundation garments and linings in a plain, figured, striped, or flowered design. Considered similar to nainsook but finer and lighter in weight. Now usually made of 100% polyester distinguished by slubs in filling direction.

  • Birdseye

Fibre : In cotton and Linen or blend of rayon staple and cotton.
Weave : Usually dobby
Characteristics : Very soft, light weight, and absorbent. Woven with a loosely twisted filling to increase absorbency. Launders very well. No starch is applied because the absorption properties must be of the best. Material must be free from any foreign matter. It is also called “diaper cloth” and is used for that purpose as well as very good towelling. Also “novelty” birdseye effects used as summer dress fabrics.

  • Broadcloth

Fibre : Cotton and silk, and rayon. Very different than wool broadcloth.
Weave : Plain weave and in most cotton broadcloths made with a very fine crosswise rib weave.
Characteristics : Originally indicated a cloth woven on a wide loom. Very closely woven and in cotton, made from either carded or combed yarns. The filling is heavier and has less twist. It is finer than poplin when made with a crosswise rib and it is lustrous and soft with a good texture. Thread count ranges from high quality 144 x 6 count down to 80 x 60. Has a smooth finish. May be bleached, dyed, or printed; also is often mercerized. Wears very well. If not of a high quality or treated it wrinkles very badly. Finest quality made from Egyptain or combed pima cotton – also sea island.
Uses : Shirts, dresses, particularly the tailored type in plain colours, blouses, summer wear of all kinds.

  • Brocade

Fibre : Cotton brocade often has the ground of cotton and the pattern of rayon and silk. Pattern is in low relief.
Weave : Jacquard and dobby
Characteristics : Rich, heavy, elaborate design effect. Sometimes with coloured or metallic threads making the design usually against a satin weave background. This makes the figures stand out. The figures in brocade are rather loose, while in damask the figure threads are actually bound into the material. The pattern may be satin on a twill ground or twill on a satin ground. Often reversible. The motifs may be of flowers, foliage, Scrollwork, Pastoral scenes, or other designs. The price range is wide. Generally reputed to have been developed from the latin name “brocade” which means to figure.
Uses : All types of after 5 wear, church vestments, interior furnishings, and state robes.

  • Buckram

Fibre : Cotton, some in linen, synthetics.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Cheap, low-textured, loose weave, very heavily sized and stiff. Also, 2 fabrics are glued together; one is open weave and the other much finer. Some is also made in linen in a single fabric. Also called crinoline book muslin or book binding. Name from Bokhara in Southern Russia, where it was first made.
Uses : Used for interlinings and all kinds of stiffening in clothes, book binding, and for millinery (because it can be moistened and shaped). Used to give stiffness to leather garments not as stiff and often coloured is called “tarlatan”. Softens with heat. Can be shaped while warm.

  • Calico

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain – usually a low count.
Characteristics : Originated in Calcutta, India, and is one of the oldest cottons. Rather coarse and light in weight. Pattern is printed on one side by discharge or resist printing. It is not always fast in colours. Sized for crispness but washes out and requires starch each time. Designs are often geometric in shape, but originally elaborate designs of birds, trees, and flowers. Inexpensive. Similar to percale. Very little on the market today, but the designs are still in use on other fabrics and sold as “calico print.”
Uses : Housedresses, aprons, patchwork quilts.

  • Cambric

Fibre : Cotton, also linen.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Soft, closely woven, light. Either bleached or piece dyed. Highly mercerized, lint free. Calendered on the right side with a slight gloss. Lower qualities have a smooth bright finish. Similar to batiste but is stiffer and fewer slubs. Launders very well. Has good body, sews and finishes well. Originally made in Cambria, France of linen and used for Church embroidery and table linens.
Uses : Handkerchiefs, underwear, slips, nightgowns, children’s dresses, aprons, shirts and blouses.

 

Fibre : Cotton – also wool.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : An unbleached muslin bed sheeting (also called Kraft muslin) used as a base fabric on which a chenille effect is formed by application of candlewick (heavy plied yarn) loops, which are then cut to give the fuzzy effect and cut yarn appearance of true chenille yarn. May be uncut also. (True chenille is a cotton, wool, silk, or rayon yarn which has a pile protruding all around at slight angles and stimulates a caterpillar. Chenille is the French word for caterpillar.)
Uses : Bedspreads, drapes, housecoats, beach wear.

 

  • Canton Flannel

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Four harness warp-faced twill weave.
Characteristics : The filling yarn is a very loosely twisted and soft and later brushed to produced a soft nap on the back, the warp is medium in size. The face is a twill. Heavy, warm, strong and absorbent. Named for Canton, China where it was first made. Comes bleached, unbleached, dyed, and some is printed.
Uses : Interlinings, sleeping garments, linings, coverings, work gloves.

 

  • Canvas

see Duck
Chambray
Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain weave or dobby designs on a plain-weave ground.
Characteristics : Made with a dyed warp and a white or unbleached filling. Both carded and combed yarns used. Has a white selvedge. Some woven with alternating white and coloured warp. “Faded” look. Has very soft colouring. Some made with stripes, checks or embroidered. Smooth, strong, closely woven, soft and has a slight lustre. Wears very well, easy to sew, and launders well. If not crease resistant, it wrinkles easily. Originated in Cobrai, France it was first made for sunbonnets.
Uses : Children’s wear, dresses, shirts and blouses, aprons, all kinds of sportswear.

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Fabric is napped, sheared, and dyed to simulate chamois leather. It is stiffer than kasha and thicker, softer and more durable than flannelette. Must be designated as “cotton chamoise-colour cloth”.
Uses : Dusters, interlining, storage bags for articles to prevent scratching.

  • Chamoisette

Fibre : Cotton, also rayon and nylon.
Weave : Knitted, double knit construction.
Characteristics : A fine, firmly knit fabric. Has a vary short soft nap. Wears well. Nylon chamoisette is more often called “glove silk”.
Uses : Gloves.

 

  • Cheesecloth

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Originally used as a wrapping material for pressing cheese. Loosely woven, thin, light in weight, open in construction, and soft. Carded yarns are always used. It is also called gauze weave. When woven in 36″ widths it is called tobacco cloth, When an applied finish is added, it is called buckram, crinoline, or bunting.
Uses : In the grey cloth, it is used for covering tobacco plants, tea bags and wiping cloths.
Finished cloth is used for curtains, bandages, dust cloths, cheap bunting, hat lining, surgical gauze, fly nets, food wrapping, e.g. meat and cheese, costumes and basket tops.

 

  • Chenille Fabric

Fibre : Cotton and any of the main textile fibres.
Weave : Mostly plain weave.
Characteristics : Warp yarn of any major textile fibre. Filling of chenille yarns (Has a pile protruding all around at right angles). The word is French for caterpillar and fabric looks hairy. Do not confuse with tufted effects obtained without the use of true Chenille filling.
Uses : Millinery, rugs, decorative fabrics, trimmings, upholstery.

 

  • Chinchilla

Fibre : Cotton or wool, and some manmade and synthetics.
Weave : Sateen or twill construction with extra fillings for long floats.
Characteristics : Does not resemble true chinchillas fur. Has small nubs on the surface of the fabric which are made by the chincilla machine. It attacks the face and causes the long floats to be worked into nubs and balls. Cotton warp is often used because it cannot show from either side. Made in medium and heavy weights. Very warm and cozy fabrics. Takes its name from Chinchilla Spain where it was invented.
Uses : In cotton, used for baby’s blankets and bunting bags.

 

  • Chino

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Twill (left hand)
Characteristics : Combined two-ply warp and filling. Has a sheen that remains. Fabric was purchased in China (thus the name) by the U.S. Army for uniforms. Originally used for army cloth in England many years before and dyed olive-drab. Fabric is mercerized and sanforized. Washs and wears extremely well with a minimum of care.
Uses : Army uniforms, summer suits and dresses, sportswear.

 

  • Chintz

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Has bright gay figures, large flower designs, birds and other designs. Also comes in plain colours. Several types of glaze. The wax and starch glaze produced by friction or glazing calendars will wash out. The resin glaze finish will not wash out and withstand drycleaning. Also comes semi-glazed. Unglazed chintz is called cretonne. Named from the Indian word “Chint” meaning ” broad, gaudily printed fabric”.
Uses : Draperies, slipcovers, dresses, sportwear.

  • Corduroy

Fibre : Cotton, rayon, and other textile fibres.
Weave : Filling Pile with both plain and twill back.
Characteristics : Made with an extra filling yarn. In the velvet family of fabrics. Has narrow medium and wide wales, also thick n’thin or checkerboard patterns. Wales have different widths and depths. Has to be cut all one way with pile running up. Most of it is washable and wears very well. Has a soft lustre.
Uses : Children’s clothes of all kinds, dresses, jackets, skirts, suits, slacks, sportswear, men’s trousers, jackets, bedspreads, draperies, and upholstery.

 

  • Crepe

Fibre : Worsted cotton, wool, silk, man-made synthetics.
Weave : Mostly plain, but various weaves.
Characteristics : Has a crinkled, puckered surface or soft mossy finish. Comes in different weights and degrees of sheerness. Dull with a harch dry feel. Woolen crepes are softer than worsted. If it is fine, it drapes well. Has very good wearing qualities. Has a very slimming effect.
Uses : Depending on weight, it is used for dresses of all types, including long dinner dresses, suits, and coats.

 

  • Crettone

Fibre : Cotton, linen, rayon
Weave : Plain or twill.
Characteristics : Finished in widths from 30 to 50 inches. Quality and price vary a great deal. The warp counts are finer than the filling counts which are spun rather loose. Strong substantial and gives good wear. Printed cretonne often has very bright colours and patterns. The fabric has no lustre (when glazed, it is called chintz). Some are warp printed and if they are, they are usually completely reversible. Designs run from the conservative to very wild and often completely cover the surface.
Uses : Bedspreads, chairs, draperies, pillows, slipcovers, coverings of all kinds, beach wear, sportwear.

 

  • Denim

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Twill – right hand – may be L2/1 or L3/1.
Characteristics : Name derived from French “serge de Nimes”. Originally had dark blue, brown or dark grey warp with a white or gray filling giving a mottled look and used only for work clothes. Now woven in bright and pastel colours with stripes as well as plain. Long wearing, it resists snags and tears, Comes in heavy and lighter weights.
Uses : Work clothes, overalls, caps, uniforms, bedspreads, slipcovers, draperies, upholstery, sportswear, of all kinds, dresses and has even been used for evening wear.

 

  • Dimity

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain weave with a crosswise or lengthwise spaced rib or crossbar effect.
Characteristics : A thin sheer with corded spaced stripes that could be single, double or triple grouping. Made of combed yarn and is 36” wide. Has a crisp texture which remains fairly well after washing. Resembles lawn in the white state. It is easy to sew and manipulate and launders well. Creases unless creaseresistant. May be bleached, dyed, or printed and often printed with a small rosebud design. It is mercerized and has a soft lustre.
Uses : Children’s dresses, women’s dresses, and blouses, infant’s wear, collar and cuff sets, basinettes, bedspreads, curtains, underwear. Has a very young look.

 

  • Domett Flannel

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain and twill
Characteristics : Also spelled domet. Generally made in white. Has a longer nap than on flannelette. Soft filling yarns of medium or light weight are used to obtain the nap. The term domett is interchangeable with “outing flannel” but it is only made in a plain weave. Both are soft and fleecy and won’t irritate the skin. Any sizing or starching must be removed before using. Outing flannel is also piece-dyed and some printed and produced in a spun rayon also.
Uses : Mostly used for infants wear, interlinings, polished cloths.

 

  • Pique

Fibre: Cotton, rayon, synthetics.
Weave: Lengthwise rib, English crosswise rib or cord weave.
Characteristics: Originally was a crosswise rib but now mostly a lenghtwise rib and the same as bedford cord. Ribs are often filled to give a more pronounced wale (cord weave). Comes in medium to heavy weights. It is generally made of combed face yarns and carded stuffer yarns. It is durable and launders well. Wrinkles badly unless given a wrinkle-free finish. Various prices. Also comes in different patterns besides wales. The small figured motifs are called cloque. Some of the patterns are birdseye (small diamond), waffle (small squares). honeycomb (like the design on honeycomb honey). When the fabric begins to wear out it wears at the corded areas first.
Uses : Trims, collars, cuffs, millinery, infants wear, particularly coats, and bonnets, women’s and children’s summer dresses, skirts and blouses, shirts, playclothes, and evening gowns.

  • Plisse

Fibre : Cotton, rayon, and others.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Could be made from any fine material, e.g. organdy, lawn, etc. Treated with caustic soda solution which shrinks parts of the goods either all
over or in stripes giving a blistered effect. Similar to seersucker in appearance. This crinkle may or may not be removed after washing. This depends on the quality of the fabric. It does not need to be ironed, but if a double thickness, such as a hem needs a little, it should be done after the fabric is thoroughly dry.
Uses : Sleepwear, housecoats, dresses, blouses for women and children, curtains, bedspreads, and bassinettes. Often it is called wrinkle crepe and may be made with a wax/shrink process (the waxed parts remain free of shrinkage and cause the ripples).

 

  • Point d’esprit

Fibre : Cotton – some in silk.
Weave : Leno, gauze, knotted, or mesh.
Characteristics : First made in France in 1834. Dull surfaced net with various sized holes. Has white or coloured dots individually spaced or in groups.
Uses : Curtains, bassinettes, evening gowns

 

  • Poplin

Fibre : Cotton, wool, and other textile fibres.
Weave : Crosswise rib. The filling is cylindrical. Two or three times as many warp as weft per inch.
Characteristics : Has a more pronounced filling effect than broadcloth. It is mercerized and has quite a high lustre. It may be bleached, or dyed (usually vat dyes are used) or printed. Heavy poplin is given a water-repellent finish for outdoor use. Originally made with silk warp and a heavier wool filling. Some also mildew-proof, fire-retardant, and some given a suede finish. American cotton broadcloth shirting is known as poplin in Great Britain.
Uses : Sportswear of all kinds, shirts, boy’s suits, uniforms, draperies, blouses, dresses.

 

  • Sailcloth

Fibre : Cotton, linen, nylon.
Weave : Plain, some made with a crosswise rib.
Characteristics : A strong canvas or duck. The weights vary, but most often the count is around 148×60. Able to withstand the elements (rain, wind and snow). Sailcloth for clothing is sold frequently and is much lighter weight than used for sails.
Uses : Sails, awnings, and all kinds of sportswear for men, women, and children.

 

  • Sateen

Fibre : Cotton, some also made in rayon.
Weave : Sateen, 5-harness, filling-face weave.
Characteristics : Lustrous and smooth with the sheen in a filling direction. Carded or combed yarns are used. Better qualities are mercerized to give a higher sheen. Some are only calendered to produce the sheen but this disappears with washing and is not considered genuine sateen. May be bleached, dyed, or printed. Difficult to make good bound buttonholes on it as it has a tendency to slip at the seams.
Uses : Dresses, sportswear, blouses, robes, pyjamas, linings for draperies, bedspreads, slip covers.

 

  • Seersucker

Fibre : Cotton, rayon, synthetics.
Weave : Plain, slack tension weave.
Characteristics : Term derived from the Persian “shirushaker”, a kind of cloth, literally “milk and sugar”. Crepe-stripe effect. Coloured stripes are often used. Dull surface. Comes in medium to heavy weights. the woven crinkle is produced by alternating slack and tight yarns in the warp. This is permanent. Some may be produced by pressing or chemicals, which is not likely to be permanent – called plisse. Durable, gives good service and wear. May be laundered without ironing. Can be bleached, yarn dyed, or printed. Some comes in a check effect.
Uses : Summer suits for men, women, and children, coats, uniforms, trims, nightwear, all kinds of sportswear, dresses, blouses, children’s wear of all kinds, curtains, bedspreads, slipcovers.

  • Shantung

Fibre : Cotton, silk, rayon, synthetics.
Weave : Plain.
Characteristics : It is a raw silk made from Tussah silk or silk waste, depending on the quality. It is quite similar to pongee, but has a more irregular surface, heavier, and rougher. Most of the slubs are in the filling direction. Wrinkles quite a bit. Underlining helps to prevent this as well as slipping at the seams. Do not fit too tightly, if long wear is expected. Comes in various weights, colours and also printed.
Uses : Dresses, suits, and coats.

 

  • Terry cloth

Fibre : Cotton and some linen.
Weave : Pile, also jacquard and dobby combined with pile.
Characteristics : Either all over loops on both sides of the fabric or patterned loops on both sides. Formed with an extra warp yarn. long wearing, easy to launder and requires no ironing. May be bleached, dyed, or printed. Better qualities have a close, firm, underweave, with very close loops. Very absorbent, and the longer the loop, the greater the absorbency. When the pile is only on one side, it is called “Turkish towelling.”
Uses : Towels, beachwear, bathrobes, all kinds of sportswear, children’s wear, slip covers, and draperies.

 

  • Tiking

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Usually twill (L2/1 or L3/1), some jacquard, satin, and dobby.
Characteristics : Very tightly woven with more warp than filling yarns. Very sturdy and strong, smooth and lustrous. Usually has white and coloured stripes, but some patterned (floral). Can be made water-repellent, germ resistant, and feather-proof.
Uses : Pillow covers, mattress coverings, upholstering and some sportswear. `Bohemian ticking” has a plain weave, a very high texture, and is featherproof. Lighter weight than regular ticking. Patterned with narrow coloured striped on a white background or may have a chambray effect by using a white or unbleached warp with a blue or red filling.

Digg This

Technical Textiles


Textiles are indispensable part of human life. They are used mainly to cover the human body for protection against all the adversities. Technological innovations have also made it possible for textile industry to offer technical solutions to the multiple end-users in the different industries.

Technical textiles are defined as textile materials and products used primarily for their technical performance and functional properties rather than their aesthetic or decorative characteristics. Other terms used for defining technical textiles include industrial textiles, functional textiles, performance textiles, engineering textiles, invisible textiles and hi-tech textiles.

An outstanding feature of the technical textile industry is the range and diversity of raw materials, processes, products and applications that it encompasses.

Technical textiles are used individually or as a component/part of another product. Technical textiles are used individually to satisfy specific functions such as fire retardant fabric for uniforms of firemen and coated fabric to be used as awnings. As a component or part of another product, they are used to enhance the strength, performance or other functional properties of that product as done by the tyre cord fabrics in tyres and interlining in shirt collars. They are also used as accessories in processes to manufacture other products like filter fabric in food industry or paper maker felt in paper mills.

Technical textiles have been slowly but steadily gaining ground due to one or more of the reasons such as: functional requirement, health & safety; cost effectiveness; durability; high strength; light weight; versatility; customization; user friendliness; eco friendliness; logistical convenience etc.

Unlike conventional textiles used traditionally for clothing or furnishing, technical textiles are used basically on account of their specific physical and functional properties and mostly by other user industries. Depending on the product characteristics, functional requirements and end-use applications the highly diversified range of technical textile products have been grouped into 12 sectors application wise:

image

  1. Agrotech (Agriculture, horticulture and forestry)
  2. Buildtech (building and construction)
  3. Clothtech (technical components of shoes and clothing)
  4. Geotech (geotextiles, civil engineering)
  5. Hometech (components of furniture, household textiles and floor coverings)
  6. Indutech (filtration, cleaning and other industrial usage)
  7. Meditech (hygiene and medical)
  8. Mobiltech (automobiles, shipping, railways and aerospace)
  9. Oekotech (environmental protection)
  10. Packtech (packaging)
  11. Protech (personal and property protection)
  12. Sporttech (sport and leisure
Digg This

Technical Textiles in India – A dormant volcano prepares to erupt…


ABSTRACT:-

India is rising and moving ahead with opportunities in every sector. For the past four years India’s GDP has grown up to 8%, and is assumed to remain consistent at 8-9% for coming years. According to Goldman Sachs, India’s economy will exceed the economy of Europe and Japan by 2030 and that of the US by 2045.Such a growth is possible because of the increase in household incomes and the predicted growth in agriculture, manufacturing and service sectors. Also the consumer spending level is growing over 5% per annum which has resulted in the on-going growth of organized retail sectors.

Talking about the technical textile industry in India, it is said to be its initial stage as it contributes only 3% of total consumption. But, it would be wrong to say that India’s technical textile industry is still sleeping. It has woken up to the enormous potential of the technical textile sector and is predicted to grow faster in next two decades than the growth withstand by US and Europe in last three decades. This is said to become possible with the growing middle class, young and educated population. And Technical Textile would be one of the most promising sectors in this growth.

And the factors like, the global economic change, strong government support, the introduction of appropriate legislation, the development of tests and standards, and widespread recognition of the need for more trained personnel, etc. also playing the valuable role in driving the industry to the farthest destination. Thus it won’t be wrong to say that, “Technical Textiles in India- A sleeping volcano prepares to erupt.”

Download Full Document Technical Textiles In India

Historical Sketch Of The Textiles


( Originally Published Early 1900’s )

No one can tell when man first learned how to spin and weave textiles. That no great degree of civilization is prerequisite is evident when we see every savage tribe of the present making some kind of woven fabric. In any case, the oldest histories give us glimpses of men spinning, weaving, and knitting.

Linen.-Flax has been cultivated in Asia Minor for its linen fiber for more than four thousand years. Linen cloth, linen twine, and linen rope served man before iron and steel were utilized. People who lived in the stone age, the period when their implements were made of stone instead of metal, knew how to make flax or linen fabrics, remnants of which have been discovered in caves and in their buried cities. As is well known, linen cloth was the fashionable fabric of ancient Bible times. “Fine linen” was a mark of honor accorded only to the high and mighty. Mummies buried thousands of years ago in Egypt have been uncovered recently, and the coverings have been found to be linen cloth, made from a variety of flax slightly different from that now commonly grown.

For many hundreds of years Egypt was the greatest linenproducing country in the world. It was not until about a hundred years before Columbus discovered America that other countries were able to produce more than Egypt. Then every country in Europe began to cultivate flax, and until the latter part of the eighteenth century, when a number of inventions made cotton fabrics cheap, linen was the most generally used textile. With the coming of cheap cotton, linen fell back into second place. Later it had to give place to wool also, wherefore it now occupies third place among the textiles used for clothing. In fact if one is to consider jute also, linen comes fourth.

Wool.-Sheep’s wool and goat’s hair have also long been used as textile fibers, and, of course, the skins from these animals have been used for clothing and tents for a still longer time. Sheep have been raised in practically every country, and the fiber is easy to manipulate and to work into textile products. The ancient Romans were skillful in spinning and weaving wool, and from them the people of northern Europe learned the art. About four hundred years after the birth of Christ (c. 400 A.D.) Roman soldiers in Great Britain started a wool-weaving factory at the British town of Winchester to supply themselves with clothing. From this factory the native inhabitants of Great Britain learned the value of wool, and began to spin and weave it for themselves. Later the wool of England became famous as an excellent product and was much demanded by other countries in Europe. Sheep raising succeeded better than the textile arts in England, however, in the early days; hence other countries bought its raw wool rather than the English wool fabrics. Several monarchs of England did their utmost to encourage the manufacture of wool. This manufacture was finally put upon a successful commercial basis by some Flemish immigrants who had fled into England because of religious persecution. Both wool workers and merchants came to London in large numbers during the reign of Henry II. Guilds were formed and London was given the monopoly of exporting English woolen cloths. From these beginnings several hundreds of years ago, London came to be, and is yet, the world’s greatest wool market both for raw wool and wool cloth.

It is interesting to note that during the hundreds of years that man has raised sheep, the breeds have been slowly but remarkably developed. First the Romans, later the Arabian Mohammedans-or Moors, as they were calledand finally the Spaniards, evolved the wonderful breed of fine wool-producing sheep now known as merinos. Nearly all the finer wool now produced comes from sheep descended from these Spanish merinos.

Cotton.-Cotton was grown and made into cloth in India fully six hundred years before Christ. The textile arts were developed to an advanced point very early by the Hindoos. If one may believe the accounts of the fineness, strength, beauty, and lightness of the East Indian gossamers, the products of their hand looms, made long centuries ago, have never been equaled by any modern fabric.

Cotton was also known to the highly advanced South American Indians. Samples of good cotton cloths have been found in their most ancient tombs. Columbus found the Indians of the West Indies wearing cotton, and Cortez and Pizarro often saw it in use.

Cotton was known to the Greeks as “tree wool” and was fancifully described in some of their ancient books. It did not reach western Europe until about 900 A. n., when it was brought westward from Arabia by the conquering Moors. They introduced it into Spain, whence it gradually spread over the rest of Europe. There was some manufacture of cotton in northern Italy as early as the sixteenth century. From there it was communicated to the Netherlands. About the beginning of the seventeenth century there was religious trouble in Netherlands and Flanders. Some of the Flemish cotton manufacturers, spinners, and weavers were involved in these religious quarrels, and had to flee for their lives, as did the wool workers who came over from these countries to London. The cotton workers fled into England and settled in Lancashire where they made a new beginning in cotton manufacture and succeeded from the start. With this hopeful beginning in the seventeenth century, Lancashire came to be the greatest cottonspinning and weaving locality in the world. By 1641 the industry was well established in the homes of the people about the city of Manchester.

After the sixteenth century there was a steady and growing import of cotton goods from India into all parts of Europe; but about one hundred and twenty-five years ago Europe began to produce more than she needed and more than India had produced. By means of this East Indian trade in cotton and in many other goods, such as spices, silks, jewelry, and so on, European traders and merchants, particularly those in the East India Company, amassed great fortunes. For a time the English trade in Indian goods was a monopoly controlled by the East India Company and sanctioned by the king of England.

England’s rise to supremacy in cotton manufacture.At the time of our American Revolutionary War, England had so gained in manufacturing ability that she had become a strong competitor for the world’s textile trade. It was partly because of England’s policy of forcing the American colonies to buy her manufactured goods that the War of Independence broke out. In 1656 the English government had prohibited the American colonies from importing raw materials to manufacture into cloth. The law made bad feeling even at that time, especially in Massachusetts where, on the one hand, it acted as a stimulus to home manufacturing and, on the other hand, led to smuggling in foreign materials without paying the English tax. But the same policy was carried out by England at home also. It was thought perfectly legitimate to attempt to force her own people to buy English goods. In Scotland in 1775 there was formed a society for discouraging Scotch and English women from wearing cotton dress goods and robes made in India, urging in preference the calicoes and lawns of Glasgow and Paisley, although the raw cotton in these British products came from India. In addition to any help that may have been received from following such restrictive measures, the natural advantages of England, such as climate, cheap power, and easy shipping facilities by ocean on all sides, caused England’s textile industry to grow rapidly.

Progress in Cotton Production.-During the last hundred years the United States has forged to the front as a producer of both raw and manufactured cottons. At present the annual cotton crop is not far from 15,000,000 bales of nearly 500 pounds each. In the manufacture of cotton the United States is closely rivaling England, though England still has the lead. Within the last forty years Germany has advanced to third place in the manufacture of cotton.

The history of the production of raw cotton during the last twenty-five years records notable extension to new territory, as, for example, into China, Japan, the East Indies, Mexico, South America, and several parts of Africa. With increase of acreage there has also come the application of scientific agriculture to cotton production in the southern states. By means of proper selection of seed, introduction of new and improved varieties, better preparation of the soil, and wiser management of the growing crop, the total product has been materially increased. In many cases these improvements have resulted in the production of over twice as much cotton to the acre as was formerly raised.

History of silk.-Silk culture had its beginning in China, how long ago no one knows. There are records that seem to show that it was an important industry as early as 3000 B. c. There is a legend that silk culture was introduced by a Chinese queen, Si-Ling-Chi, from some country to the southwest, and that she herself raised the worms, reeled the threads,, and taught the people to do the same. She is now known among the Chinese as the “Goddess of the Silk Worms.”

Silk production was introduced into Korea and Japan about 200 B.C. Later it spread to India and Persia, although the Chinese government attempted to keep all silk production to itself. To ship silkworm eggs out of the country meant capital punishment. It was from India and Persia that Europe first learned of silk. To a certain extent the new material was used in Roman times by the emperors and the women of the court, but it was not until about the tenth century that it became known generally over western Europe. Much of it came into use at first for church embroideries and royal robes, especially in the form of a silken fabric called sammet, produced in Arabia. Other silk fabrics introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages were known as ciclatoun, cendol, and sarcenet. Satins, velvets, and brocades were introduced in the latter part of the Middle Ages, all from the Orient.

Arabia was for a long time the connecting link between the Orient and the West, and from Arabia the Europeans got silk embroidery, gold brocade, silken curtains and mantles, and, by the fourteenth century, taffeta, which originally came from Persia.

The production of raw silk in Europe was begun in Italy before the middle of the twelfth century, and silkworms were raised in Spain by the Mohammedan Moors certainly as early as the eighth century. At one time the business was encouraged by the popes of the Roman Catholic Church, and later by the kings of France. Under such conditions Tours and Lyons in France became prominent silk-producing centers. By the seventeenth century, France supplied a large proportion of the silk goods used in the western world, a service in which she has led all other countries for most of the time since then. At present, Italy produces more raw silk than France, but France produces more of the manufactured product.

Silk culture in America.-Shortly after the settlement of America experiments were tried in raising the silkworm here. The first attempt was made in Virginia in 1622 upon the advice of the king of England, but the result was an utter failure. Later small amounts of raw silk were produced in Georgia, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Rhode Island. Connecticut was the least unsuccessful. During the Revolutionary War the industry died out and was not revived again until 1826. Beginning with that date and continuing for ten years there was great progress in silk production. Several societies of growers were formed, books published, new machinery invented, and in some states public funds were raised for the promotion and study of the industry. The United States Government published a document intended to be used as a manual of instruction for silk growers.

The silk craze of the thirties.-Previous to 1836, silkworms had been fed and raised on the common white mulberry leaves, but about this date someone introduced plants of the Chinese mulberry known as the morus multicaulis which, it was claimed, had some special properties and values for silk-growing purposes. Immediately all the silk growers in the country desired the Chinese mulberry. The new plant was so hard to get that a craze developed in which the price for the plants rose to fabulous sums, small cuttings selling for almost their weight in gold. Acres and acres were planted with Chinese mulberry trees, and great fortunes in silk production in this country seemed near at hand.

In 1837, however, a severe financial panic broke over the entire country, closing nearly every bank and driving great numbers of business men into failure and bankruptcy. Money became scarce. Those who had debts to pay found it difficult to raise the necessary amounts. This panic of 1837 hit the silk and mulberry industries hard. Chinese mulberry plants so declined in value that they could be had for ten cents per hundred. Thousands of persons were ruined in this crash which lasted throughout the years of 1837 and 1838. Silk growing naturally received a terrible set-back, which was made worse by the severe winter of 1839, which killed nearly all the Chinese mulberry trees still to be found in the country. For several years no more silk was grown in the United States.

Many years passed before there came any revival of interest in this country in growing silkworms. In the meantime, manufactories sprang up here and there in the East, which imported from Europe all their raw silk. By 1860 there were no less than sixty-seven factories. There had grown up an importing trade, and business had ceased to look to domestic sources for supplies of raw silk.

The California silk craze.-In 1861 a Frenchman named L. Prevost began raising silk near San Jose in California. Prevost was something of a promoter and he soon interested a considerable number of California people in the industry. His plan, however, was to raise the silkworm mainly for the eggs rather than the silk fiber. The eggs were to be sold to French and other European silk producers. The California State Agricultural Society became interested in Prevost’s scheme and aided in its advertising, and the state legislature passed a law offering a bounty to silk producers. But Prevost was more successful in promoting the idea than in keeping the venture going. What had developed into a good-sized silk-culture craze in California quickly collapsed when the would-be growers found that the silkworms required an immense amount of care, that they were subject to a number of destructive diseases, and that even the California winters were too severe for the worms when kept out of doors.

Recent attempts to produce raw silk.-Attempts to raise silkworms were made in Kansas in the boom days of that state, in the later seventies, but the droughts of the eighties stopped the silk culture there. About 1878 the Department of Agriculture in Washington became interested in silk culture, and in the years that followed made considerable effort to interest the people of various sections of the country, especially the South, in growing silkworms. By 1883 regular annual appropriations of money were made for the Department that it might study and promote silk growing. A reeling institution, or filature, was established at Washington, and cocoons were purchased by the government from all growers. Silk growing was revived in Kansas and California and extended into Louisiana and, later, in the nineties, to Utah.

Interest in silk culture on the part of the Department of Agriculture slackened in 1890, and it was not until 1901 that another effort was made to introduce silk growing. This time it was planned to start the industry among the southern negroes of the poorer classes. But even this scheme has not been found successful.

The coming of oriental silks into American markets.Since the bursting of the morus multicaulis silk-growing boom of 1830 and the Prevost craze in California in 1860, and during the time of the more recent experiments just referred to, certain new factors have crept into the silk situation which at present seem to preclude for a long time to come the possibility of making silk growing profitable in this country. In 1854, Commodore Perry of the United States Navy sailed into the ports of Japan and made possible by national treaties the opening of trade with a country which up to that time had held itself aloof from all the rest of the world. It happened that Japan was a great producer of raw silk, which became henceforth one of its principal articles of export. Some years later, China, the greatest silk-producing country, commenced commercial relations with the rest of the world. From these two countries there poured into Europe and the United States a stream of raw silk that speedily reduced the market prices of this commodity from nine and ten dollars to three and four dollars a pound. Japan and China were full of men and women, who, although working for daily wages of some eight to fifteen cents, were nevertheless expert in the care of silkworms. Against such conditions of cheap production the United States could do nothing. Even France lost ground, and today silk culture there is standing still, despite the help of French government bounties. In Europe, only Italy, with her cheap labor and excellent facilities for producing what is pronounced to be the best raw silk in the world, has continued uninterruptedly to cultivate the silkworm.

As soon as the Japanese and Chinese markets were opened to the world, many of the largest manufacturers in this country, as well as in France and Germany, established buying agencies in the midst of the raw-silk-producing areas. It was soon found that there was much waste of energy and of material in the ancient methods employed by both Chinese and Japanese in reeling the silk. This was remedied, so far as certain individual companies were concerned, by starting on their own account reeling factories, called filatures, and by training the native workers in methods of using the improved machinery and methods installed. Several American silk manufacturers now own filatures at Shanghai and Canton, the principal silk markets of China. More recently, Japan has started experiment stations and inspection systems throughout her silk-growing areas, aiming at improving the product to meet the demands of the markets of the United States and Europe.