Beginning garmenting–garment making


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Merchandising in Garmenting

Merchandise means goods bought and sold; and trading of goods. Merchandising is an activity of selling and promoting the goods.

Merchandiser is a person who interacts with the buyer and seller, and also puts efforts into proper relation between buying offices/ buying agents/ agency and seller/ exporter in terms of executing an order.

A garment export unit generally has many departments like stores, cutting, production, packing, checking etc. Merchandising department is the star of the department among all the working departments in the Export concern, because Merchandising is the only department having maximum control over the departments and total responsible for Profit and loss of the company.

The job of a merchandiser is to co-ordinate with the entire department in the office as well as the customers. Merchandiser meets the buyers and collects the details of their requirements etc., to develop the relationship with the customer.

Objects of Merchandising

Merchandising denotes all the planned activities to execute and dispatch the merchandise on time, taking into consideration of the 4 Rs to replenish the customer.

  • Right Quantity: To dispatch right quantity of product what buyer ordered.
  • Right Quality: It should be with right quality as accepted both parties.
  • Right Cost: Everybody wants more from what they are paid.
  • Right Time: No one wants to wait idle even in a Restaurant. Keeping delivery schedule is mandatory.
  • Planning Capability: Merchandiser should be capable of planning, based on the planning the order is to be followed. If the planning is not done properly it will directly affect the delivery time of the order.
  • Decision making: For a Merchandiser, decision making power is most important. He should think about the decision to be taken and to act in a right way.
  • Communication Skill: The communication is very much important to promote the business activity. The merchandiser should remember that communication must be lurid and should having face to face conversation with the buyer.
  • Loyalty: Loyalty is an essential character of human beings. Especially for the business people like merchandiser it is a must.
  • Knowledge about the field: Merchandiser should have adequate knowledge about the garments, Computer knowledge, and technical knowledge to communicate with different people in the business is a must.
  • Co-ordinate & Co-operate: Merchandiser is the person who is actually co-ordinate with the number of departments. To Co-ordinate with different people in the industry he should be co- operative.
  • Monitoring ability: Merchandiser should monitor to expedite the orders.
  • Other qualities: Education, Experience, Situational Management, Ability to Evaluate, Dedication, Knowledge of expediting procedures.

Function of Merchandisers

  1. Developing new samples, execute sample orders
  2. Costing
  3. Programming
  4. Raw materials / Accessories arrangement
  5. Production scheduling (or) route card drafting
  6. Approval of various Process, Pattern and size set
  7. Pre production follow up
  8. Meet Inspection Agencies
  9. Production controlling
  10. Identifying shortages and make arrangement for the shortages
  11. Following quality assurance procedures, quality control procedures
  12. Monitoring the in-house, sub-contractors and junior activities
  13. Buyer communication
  14. Communication with sub-contractors, processing units & other 3rd parties
  15. Proper reporting
  16. Highlighting to the management
  17. Record maintenance
  18. Developing samples
  19. Placement of orders to suppliers
  20. Taking measures for consistent production
  21. Taking preventive action to maintain the targeted performance in all areas of activities
  22. Attending meeting with superiors and furnishing the required details about merchandising

Feature based 3D garment design through 2D sketches

Charlie C.L.Wang* Yu Wang Matthew M.F.Yuen
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,
Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong


This paper presents a new approach for intuitively modelling a 3D garment around a 3D human model by 2D
sketches input. Our approach is feature based – every human model has pre-defined features, and the
constructed garments are related to the features on human models. Firstly, a feature template for creating a
customized 3D garment is defined according to the features on a human model; secondly, the profiles of the 3D
garment are specified through 2D sketches; finally, a smooth mesh surface interpolating the specified profiles is
constructed by a modified variational subdivision scheme. The result mesh surface can be cut and flattened into
2D patterns to be manufactured. Our approach provides a 3D design tool to create garment patterns directly in
the 3D space through 2D strokes, which is a characteristic not available in other computer aided garment design
systems. The constructed garment patterns are related to the features on a human model, so the patterns can be
regenerated automatically when creating the same style of garment for other human models. Our technique can
greatly improve the efficiency and the quality of pattern making in the garment industry.

Keywords: sketched input, 2D strokes, 3D design, computer-aided design, garment industry

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Quality Control Aspects of Garment Exports

  • Introduction

For every industry or business, to get increased sales and better name amongst consumers and fellow companies it is important to maintain a level of quality. Especially for the businesses engaged in export business has to sustain a high level of quality to ensure better business globally. Generally quality control standards for export are set strictly, as this business is also holds the prestige of the country, whose company is doing the export. Export houses earn foreign exchange for the country, so it becomes mandatory to have good quality control of their products. In the garment industry quality control is practiced right from the initial stage of sourcing raw materials to the stage of final finished garment. For textile and apparel industry product quality is calculated in terms of quality and standard of fibres, yarns, fabric construction, colour fastness, surface designs and the final finished garment products. However quality
expectations for export are related to the type of customer segments and the retail outlets

There are a number of factors on which quality fitness of garment industry is based such as – performance, reliability, durability, visual and perceived quality of the garment. Quality needs to be defined in terms of a particular framework of cost. The national regulatory quality certification and international quality programmes like ISO 9000 series lay down the broad quality parameters based on which companies maintain the export quality in the garment and apparel industry. Here some of main fabric properties that are taken into consideration for garment manufacturing for export basis:
• Overall look of the garment.
• Right formation of the garment.
• Feel and fall of the garment.
Physical properties.
• Colour fastness of the garment.
Finishing properties
• Presentation of the final produced garment.

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Garments Manufacturing Sequence

Garments manufacturing follows a flowchart where in each steps definite works are completed to carried out a complete garments. Here I will show you all of the garments manufacturing steps that you must follow to make a garment.

1. Design/ Sketch:

For the production of knit garments, or woven garments a sketch of a particular garment including its design features is essential to produce on paper so that after manufacturing of that garment could be verified or checked whether could be done manually or with the help of computer.

2. Pattern Design:

Hard paper copy of each component of the garment of exact dimension of each component is called pattern. The patterns also include seam allowance, trimming allowance, dirts, and pleats, ease allowance, any special design etc affairs. Pattern design could also be done manually or with the help of computer.

3. Sample Making:
The patterns are used to cut the fabric. Then the garment components in fabric form are used to sew/assemble the garment. Sample garment manufacturing is to be done by a very efficient and technically sound person.


4. Production Pattern:
The patterns of the approved sample garment are used for making production pattern. During production pattern making, sometimes it may be necessary to modify patterns design if buyer or appropriate authority suggests any minor modification.

5. Grading:
Normally for large scale garments production of any style needs different sizes to produce from a set of particular size of patterns, the patterns of different sizes are produced by using grade rule which is called grading.

6. Marker Making:

All the pattern pieces for all the required sizes are arranged n the paper in such a way so that maximum number of garments could be produced with minimum fabric wastag4e. Markers are made for 6, 12, 18, 24 etc. pieces. Marker is also useful to estimate fabric consumption calculations.

7. Spreading:
It is the process of arranging fabrics on the spreading table as per length and width of the marker in stack form. Normally height of the lay/fabric is limited upto maximum six inches high. But 4 inch to 5 inch height of the lay is safe.

8. Fabric Cutting:

On the fabric lay/spread the marker paper is placed carefully and accurately, and pinned with the fabric to avoid unwanted movement or displacement of the marker paper. Normally straight knife cutting machine is used to cut out the garment component as per exact dimension of each patterns in stack form, care must be taken to avoid cutting defects.

9. Sorting/ Bundling:
After cutting the entire fabric lay, all the garments components in stack form is shorted out as per size and color. To avoid mistake in sorting, it is better to use code number on each pattern.

10. Sewing or Assembling:

It is the most important department/ section of a garment manufacturing industry. Sewing machines of different types are arranged as a vertical line to assemble the garments. Sequence of types of sewing machine arrangement depends on sequence of assembling operations. Number of sewing machine per line varies from 20 nos to 60 nos depending on the style of the ga4rmnet to be produce. Production pr line pr hour also varies from 100 to 150 pieces depending on specific circumstances. Number of sewing machine arrangement per line may be upto 60 depending on design and out put quantity of garment.

11. Inspection:
Each and every garment after sewing passes through the inspection table/ point, where the garments are thoroughly and carefully checked to detect/find any defect if present in the garment. The defects may be for example variation of measurement, sewing defect, fabric defects, spots etc. if the defect is possible to overcome, then the garment is sent to the respective person for correction. If the defect is not correctionable, then the garment is separated as wastage.

12. Pressing/ Finishing:

After passing through the inspection table, each garment is normally ironed/ pressed to remove unwanted crease and to improve the smoothness, so that the garments looks nice to the customer. Folding of the garment is also done here for poly packing of the garments as per required dimension.

13. Final Inspection:

It is the last stage of inspection f the manufactured garments on behalf of the garment manufacturing organization, to detect any defective garments before packing.

14. Packing:
After final inspection, the garments are poly-packed, dozen-wise, color wise, size ratio wise, bundled and packed in the cartoon. The cartoon is marked with important information in printed form which is seen from outside the cartoon easily.

15. Despatch: The cartoons of the manufactured garments are delivered or placed in the despatch department or finished product godown, from where the garments lot is delivered for shipment.