Structure & Mechanics of Woven Fabrics



Basic Weaves

The great variety of weaves found in the textiles of to-day are modifications of a few fundamental weaves invented in the earliest times.
The chief fundamental weaves are:

(1) Plain weave.
(2) Twills.
(3) Sateen.

To which may be added the derivatives—
(4) Rib weave.
(5) Basket weave.



These do not include the many fancy weaves, too numerous to classify, and the open work weaves, made in the Leno loom, in which some of the threads are crossed. Knit goods are made by the interloping of a single thread, by hand or on circular knitting machines and lace by an analogous process, using several systems of threads. Felt is made up of matted fibers of fur and wool and has no thread structure.



  • Plain Weave

The plain weave is the most common, nearly all light weight goods being thus woven. In plain weaving, each thread of both warp and filling passes alternately over and under the threads at right angles. This makes a comparatively open cloth, requiring the smallest amount of yarn for the surface covered. This weave is used in nearly all cotton goods, as in muslins, sheetings, calicoes, ginghams, and thin woolen goods. Even in the plain weave variety is obtained by having some of the threads larger than others, either in warp or filling or both, thus producing stripes and checked effects.


a—Plain weave; b—Prunella twill; c—Cassimere twill; d—Swansdown twill.

  • Twills

After the plain weave the twill is the most common, being much used for dress goods, suitings, etc., as well as some of the thicker cottons. In this weave the intersections of the threads produce characteristic lines diagonally across the fabric, most often at an angle of 45°. The twill may be hardly visible or very pronounced. The simplest twills are the so-called “doeskin” and “prunella.” In the doeskin the filling threads pass over one and under two of the warp threads and in the prunella twill over two and under one. The most common twill is the cassimere twill in which both the warp and filling run over two and under two of the threads at right angles.



  • Uneven Twills

A twill made by running both warp and filling under one and over three threads is called a swansdown twill and the reverse is known as the crow weave. In these the diagonal twilled effect is much more marked. Various twills are often combined with each other and with plain weave, making a great variety of texture. Numerous uneven twills are made, two over and three under, etc.

  • Sateen Weave

In the sateen weave, nearly all of either the warp or the filling threads are on the surface, the object being to produce a smooth surface fabric like sateen. With this weave it is possible to use a cotton warp and silk filling, having most of the silk appear on the surface of the fabric.


A—On cross-section paper; B—Graphic diagram.

  • Rib and Basket Weaves

The rib and basket weaves are derivatives of the plain weave, two or more threads replacing the single strand. In the rib weave, either the warp or the filling threads run double or more, thus making a corded effect. In the basket weave, both warp and filling are run double or treble, giving a coarse texture. This weave is sometimes called the panama weave.

  • Double Cloth

In the thicker fabrics like men’s suitings and overcoatings, there may be a double series of warp threads, only one series appearing on the face of the goods, and in the still thicker fabrics, there may be a double set of both warp and filling threads, making double cloth, the two sides of which may be entirely different in color and design.

  • Velvet

In weaving plush, velvet and velveteen, loops are made in the filling or warp threads which are afterwards cut, producing the pile.

Fiber-reinforced composites

Fiber-reinforced composites (or fibrous composites) are the most commonly used form of the constituent combinations. The fibers of such composites are generally strong and stiff and therefore serve as the primary load-carrying constituent. The matrix holds the fibers together and serves as an agent to redistribute the loads from a broken fiber to the adjacent fibers in the material when fibers start failing under excessive loads. This property of the matrix constituent contributes to one of the most important characteristics of the fibrous composites, namely, improved strength compared to the individual constituent.

Woven fabrics that are used in composites can be grouped as two-dimensional (2-D) and three dimensional (3-D) structures. 2D-weaving is a relatively high-speed economical process. However, woven fabrics have an inherent crimp or waviness in the interlaced yarns, and this is undesirable for maximum composite properties.

In 2D-structures, yarns are laid in a plane and the thickness of the fabric is small compared to its in-plane dimensions. Single layer designs include plain, basket, twill and satin weaves which are used in laminates. Two-dimensional woven fabrics are generally anisotropic, have poor in-plane shear resistance and have less modulus than the fiber materials due to existence of crimp and crimp interchange. Reducing yarn crimp in the loading direction or using high modulus yarns improves fabric modulus. To increase isotropy, in-plane shear rigidity and other properties in bias or diagonal direction, triaxially woven fabrics are developed in which three yarn systems interlace at 60° angles as shown in Fig. 2. Other
mechanical properties required in relation to different loading conditions are: through thickness stiffness and strength properties, enhanced impact resistance, fatigue resistance,
dimensional stability, fraction thickness, damage tolerance, and subtle conformability.


In 3D-fabric structures, the thickness or Z-direction dimension is considerable relative to X and Y dimensions. Fibers or yarns are intertwined, interlaced or intermeshed in the X (longitudinal), Y (cross), and Z (vertical) directions. For 3D-structures, there may be an endless number of possibilities for yarn spacing in a 3-D space.


Fig. 2: Triaxial weaving

3-D fabrics are woven on special looms with multiple warp and/or weft layers. Fig. 3 shows various 3D-Woven structures. In polar weave structure, fibers or yarns are placed equally in circumferential, radial and axial directions. The fiber volume fraction is around 50%. Polar weaves are suitable to make cylindrical walls, cylinders, cones and convergent-divergent sections. To form such a shape, prepreg yarns are inserted into a mandrel in the radial direction.


5-Direction construction                     Polar weave                                          Orthogonal weave

Fig.3: Schematics of various 3D-woven fabric structures for composites

Circumferential yarns are wound in a helix and axial yarns are laid parallel to the mandrel axis. Since the preform lacks the structural integrity, the rest of the yarns are impregnated with resin and the structure is cured on the mandrel. Polar weaves can be woven into nearnet shapes. A near-net shape is a structure that does not require much machining to each
the final product size and shape. Since fibers are not broken due to machining, net shapes generally perform better than machined parts.

In orthogonal weave, reinforcement yarns are arranged perpendicular to each other in X, Y and Z directions. No interlacing or crimp exists between yarns. Fiber volume fraction is
between 45 and 55 percent. By arranging the amount of yarn in each direction, isotropic or anisotropic preform can be obtained.

Except for the components that are fundamentally Cartesian in nature, orthogonal weaves are usually less suitable for net shape manufacturing than the polar weaves. Unit cell size can be smaller than polar weaves which results in superior mechanical properties. Since no yarn interlacing takes place in polar and orthogonal structures, they are also referred to as ´´nonwoven 3-D“ structures in the composites industry. However, it is more proper to label these structures as woven structures with zero level of crimp.

In angle interlock type of structures, warp (or weft) yarns are used to bind several layers of weft (or warp) yarns together as shown in Fig. 4. In place of warp or weft yarns, an additional third yarn may also be used as binder. Stuffer yarns, which are straight, can be used to increase fiber volume fraction and in-plane strength. If the binder yarns interlace vertically between fabric layers, the structure is called orthogonal weave.


Fig. 4: Angle interlock fabric; (A) with and (B) without added stuffer yarns.
Fig. 5: Schematic of King’s 3-D machine

Angle interlock or multi-layer fabrics for flat panel reinforcement can be woven on traditional looms, mostly on shuttle looms. The warp yarns are usually taken directly from a creel. This allows mixing of different yarns in the warp direction. Other more complex 3D-Fabrics such as polar and orthogonal weaves require specialized weaving machines. Several weaving machines were developed to weave complex 3D-structures as illustrated in Fig. 5. Multilayer weaving into a three-dimensional preform consists of interlocking warp yarns in many layers. Whereas in conventional weaving all of the warp yarns are oriented essentially in one plane, in the structure.

A typical step for weaving a multilayer preform includes two, three, or more systems of warp yarns and special shedding mechanism that allows lifting the harnesses to a many levels as the number of layers of warp yarns. By this weaving method, various fiber architectures can be produced, including solid orthogonal panels, variable thickness solid panel, and core structures simulating a box beam or truss-like structure.

The most widely used materials in 2D- or 3D-weaving are carbon/graphite, glass, and aramid. Any material that can be shaped as a fiber can be woven into preforms, more or
less complicated. Woven preforms can be made of a single type of fiber material or different fiber and yarn materials can be used as a hybrid structure. Due to the nature of woven
structure geometry and weaving process, when selecting a fiber for weaving or for any other textile manufacturing process, fiber brittleness and bending rigidity need to be considered. or example, carbon and graphite fibers, which account for 90% of all 3D-woven preforms, are prone to break and fracture during weaving. Fig. 2.6 shows preform and composite samples made of carbon fibers.


Fig. 6: Woven 3D-preform and composite samples made of carbon fibers


Development of the Weaving Machine and 3D Woven Spacer Fabric Structures for Lightweight Composites Materials- Book


Von der Fakultät Maschinenwesen
Technischen Universität Dresden
Erlangung des akademischen Grades
Doktoringenieur (Dr.-Ing.)
angenommene Dissertation


  • Armure

Fibre : Cotton, silk, wool, rayon, synthetics, and blends.
Weave : Plain, twill, or rib, background often has a small design either jacquard or dobby made with warp floats on surface giving a raised effect.
Characteristics : Design is often in two colours and raised. The name was derived from original fabric which was woven with a small interlaced design of chain armor and used for military equipment during the Crusades.
Uses : a rich looking dress fabric, draperies, or upholstery.

  • Batiste

Fibre : Cotton, also rayon and wool.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Named after Jean Baptiste, a French linen weaver. Light weight, soft, semi-sheer fabric which resembles nainsook, but finer. It belongs to the lawn family; almost transparent. It is made of tightly twisted, combed yarns and mercerized finish. Sometimes it is printed or embroidered. In a heavier weight, it is used for foundation garments and linings in a plain, figured, striped, or flowered design. Considered similar to nainsook but finer and lighter in weight. Now usually made of 100% polyester distinguished by slubs in filling direction.

  • Birdseye

Fibre : In cotton and Linen or blend of rayon staple and cotton.
Weave : Usually dobby
Characteristics : Very soft, light weight, and absorbent. Woven with a loosely twisted filling to increase absorbency. Launders very well. No starch is applied because the absorption properties must be of the best. Material must be free from any foreign matter. It is also called “diaper cloth” and is used for that purpose as well as very good towelling. Also “novelty” birdseye effects used as summer dress fabrics.

  • Broadcloth

Fibre : Cotton and silk, and rayon. Very different than wool broadcloth.
Weave : Plain weave and in most cotton broadcloths made with a very fine crosswise rib weave.
Characteristics : Originally indicated a cloth woven on a wide loom. Very closely woven and in cotton, made from either carded or combed yarns. The filling is heavier and has less twist. It is finer than poplin when made with a crosswise rib and it is lustrous and soft with a good texture. Thread count ranges from high quality 144 x 6 count down to 80 x 60. Has a smooth finish. May be bleached, dyed, or printed; also is often mercerized. Wears very well. If not of a high quality or treated it wrinkles very badly. Finest quality made from Egyptain or combed pima cotton – also sea island.
Uses : Shirts, dresses, particularly the tailored type in plain colours, blouses, summer wear of all kinds.

  • Brocade

Fibre : Cotton brocade often has the ground of cotton and the pattern of rayon and silk. Pattern is in low relief.
Weave : Jacquard and dobby
Characteristics : Rich, heavy, elaborate design effect. Sometimes with coloured or metallic threads making the design usually against a satin weave background. This makes the figures stand out. The figures in brocade are rather loose, while in damask the figure threads are actually bound into the material. The pattern may be satin on a twill ground or twill on a satin ground. Often reversible. The motifs may be of flowers, foliage, Scrollwork, Pastoral scenes, or other designs. The price range is wide. Generally reputed to have been developed from the latin name “brocade” which means to figure.
Uses : All types of after 5 wear, church vestments, interior furnishings, and state robes.

  • Buckram

Fibre : Cotton, some in linen, synthetics.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Cheap, low-textured, loose weave, very heavily sized and stiff. Also, 2 fabrics are glued together; one is open weave and the other much finer. Some is also made in linen in a single fabric. Also called crinoline book muslin or book binding. Name from Bokhara in Southern Russia, where it was first made.
Uses : Used for interlinings and all kinds of stiffening in clothes, book binding, and for millinery (because it can be moistened and shaped). Used to give stiffness to leather garments not as stiff and often coloured is called “tarlatan”. Softens with heat. Can be shaped while warm.

  • Calico

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain – usually a low count.
Characteristics : Originated in Calcutta, India, and is one of the oldest cottons. Rather coarse and light in weight. Pattern is printed on one side by discharge or resist printing. It is not always fast in colours. Sized for crispness but washes out and requires starch each time. Designs are often geometric in shape, but originally elaborate designs of birds, trees, and flowers. Inexpensive. Similar to percale. Very little on the market today, but the designs are still in use on other fabrics and sold as “calico print.”
Uses : Housedresses, aprons, patchwork quilts.

  • Cambric

Fibre : Cotton, also linen.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Soft, closely woven, light. Either bleached or piece dyed. Highly mercerized, lint free. Calendered on the right side with a slight gloss. Lower qualities have a smooth bright finish. Similar to batiste but is stiffer and fewer slubs. Launders very well. Has good body, sews and finishes well. Originally made in Cambria, France of linen and used for Church embroidery and table linens.
Uses : Handkerchiefs, underwear, slips, nightgowns, children’s dresses, aprons, shirts and blouses.


Fibre : Cotton – also wool.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : An unbleached muslin bed sheeting (also called Kraft muslin) used as a base fabric on which a chenille effect is formed by application of candlewick (heavy plied yarn) loops, which are then cut to give the fuzzy effect and cut yarn appearance of true chenille yarn. May be uncut also. (True chenille is a cotton, wool, silk, or rayon yarn which has a pile protruding all around at slight angles and stimulates a caterpillar. Chenille is the French word for caterpillar.)
Uses : Bedspreads, drapes, housecoats, beach wear.


  • Canton Flannel

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Four harness warp-faced twill weave.
Characteristics : The filling yarn is a very loosely twisted and soft and later brushed to produced a soft nap on the back, the warp is medium in size. The face is a twill. Heavy, warm, strong and absorbent. Named for Canton, China where it was first made. Comes bleached, unbleached, dyed, and some is printed.
Uses : Interlinings, sleeping garments, linings, coverings, work gloves.


  • Canvas

see Duck
Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain weave or dobby designs on a plain-weave ground.
Characteristics : Made with a dyed warp and a white or unbleached filling. Both carded and combed yarns used. Has a white selvedge. Some woven with alternating white and coloured warp. “Faded” look. Has very soft colouring. Some made with stripes, checks or embroidered. Smooth, strong, closely woven, soft and has a slight lustre. Wears very well, easy to sew, and launders well. If not crease resistant, it wrinkles easily. Originated in Cobrai, France it was first made for sunbonnets.
Uses : Children’s wear, dresses, shirts and blouses, aprons, all kinds of sportswear.

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Fabric is napped, sheared, and dyed to simulate chamois leather. It is stiffer than kasha and thicker, softer and more durable than flannelette. Must be designated as “cotton chamoise-colour cloth”.
Uses : Dusters, interlining, storage bags for articles to prevent scratching.

  • Chamoisette

Fibre : Cotton, also rayon and nylon.
Weave : Knitted, double knit construction.
Characteristics : A fine, firmly knit fabric. Has a vary short soft nap. Wears well. Nylon chamoisette is more often called “glove silk”.
Uses : Gloves.


  • Cheesecloth

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Originally used as a wrapping material for pressing cheese. Loosely woven, thin, light in weight, open in construction, and soft. Carded yarns are always used. It is also called gauze weave. When woven in 36″ widths it is called tobacco cloth, When an applied finish is added, it is called buckram, crinoline, or bunting.
Uses : In the grey cloth, it is used for covering tobacco plants, tea bags and wiping cloths.
Finished cloth is used for curtains, bandages, dust cloths, cheap bunting, hat lining, surgical gauze, fly nets, food wrapping, e.g. meat and cheese, costumes and basket tops.


  • Chenille Fabric

Fibre : Cotton and any of the main textile fibres.
Weave : Mostly plain weave.
Characteristics : Warp yarn of any major textile fibre. Filling of chenille yarns (Has a pile protruding all around at right angles). The word is French for caterpillar and fabric looks hairy. Do not confuse with tufted effects obtained without the use of true Chenille filling.
Uses : Millinery, rugs, decorative fabrics, trimmings, upholstery.


  • Chinchilla

Fibre : Cotton or wool, and some manmade and synthetics.
Weave : Sateen or twill construction with extra fillings for long floats.
Characteristics : Does not resemble true chinchillas fur. Has small nubs on the surface of the fabric which are made by the chincilla machine. It attacks the face and causes the long floats to be worked into nubs and balls. Cotton warp is often used because it cannot show from either side. Made in medium and heavy weights. Very warm and cozy fabrics. Takes its name from Chinchilla Spain where it was invented.
Uses : In cotton, used for baby’s blankets and bunting bags.


  • Chino

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Twill (left hand)
Characteristics : Combined two-ply warp and filling. Has a sheen that remains. Fabric was purchased in China (thus the name) by the U.S. Army for uniforms. Originally used for army cloth in England many years before and dyed olive-drab. Fabric is mercerized and sanforized. Washs and wears extremely well with a minimum of care.
Uses : Army uniforms, summer suits and dresses, sportswear.


  • Chintz

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Has bright gay figures, large flower designs, birds and other designs. Also comes in plain colours. Several types of glaze. The wax and starch glaze produced by friction or glazing calendars will wash out. The resin glaze finish will not wash out and withstand drycleaning. Also comes semi-glazed. Unglazed chintz is called cretonne. Named from the Indian word “Chint” meaning ” broad, gaudily printed fabric”.
Uses : Draperies, slipcovers, dresses, sportwear.

  • Corduroy

Fibre : Cotton, rayon, and other textile fibres.
Weave : Filling Pile with both plain and twill back.
Characteristics : Made with an extra filling yarn. In the velvet family of fabrics. Has narrow medium and wide wales, also thick n’thin or checkerboard patterns. Wales have different widths and depths. Has to be cut all one way with pile running up. Most of it is washable and wears very well. Has a soft lustre.
Uses : Children’s clothes of all kinds, dresses, jackets, skirts, suits, slacks, sportswear, men’s trousers, jackets, bedspreads, draperies, and upholstery.


  • Crepe

Fibre : Worsted cotton, wool, silk, man-made synthetics.
Weave : Mostly plain, but various weaves.
Characteristics : Has a crinkled, puckered surface or soft mossy finish. Comes in different weights and degrees of sheerness. Dull with a harch dry feel. Woolen crepes are softer than worsted. If it is fine, it drapes well. Has very good wearing qualities. Has a very slimming effect.
Uses : Depending on weight, it is used for dresses of all types, including long dinner dresses, suits, and coats.


  • Crettone

Fibre : Cotton, linen, rayon
Weave : Plain or twill.
Characteristics : Finished in widths from 30 to 50 inches. Quality and price vary a great deal. The warp counts are finer than the filling counts which are spun rather loose. Strong substantial and gives good wear. Printed cretonne often has very bright colours and patterns. The fabric has no lustre (when glazed, it is called chintz). Some are warp printed and if they are, they are usually completely reversible. Designs run from the conservative to very wild and often completely cover the surface.
Uses : Bedspreads, chairs, draperies, pillows, slipcovers, coverings of all kinds, beach wear, sportwear.


  • Denim

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Twill – right hand – may be L2/1 or L3/1.
Characteristics : Name derived from French “serge de Nimes”. Originally had dark blue, brown or dark grey warp with a white or gray filling giving a mottled look and used only for work clothes. Now woven in bright and pastel colours with stripes as well as plain. Long wearing, it resists snags and tears, Comes in heavy and lighter weights.
Uses : Work clothes, overalls, caps, uniforms, bedspreads, slipcovers, draperies, upholstery, sportswear, of all kinds, dresses and has even been used for evening wear.


  • Dimity

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain weave with a crosswise or lengthwise spaced rib or crossbar effect.
Characteristics : A thin sheer with corded spaced stripes that could be single, double or triple grouping. Made of combed yarn and is 36” wide. Has a crisp texture which remains fairly well after washing. Resembles lawn in the white state. It is easy to sew and manipulate and launders well. Creases unless creaseresistant. May be bleached, dyed, or printed and often printed with a small rosebud design. It is mercerized and has a soft lustre.
Uses : Children’s dresses, women’s dresses, and blouses, infant’s wear, collar and cuff sets, basinettes, bedspreads, curtains, underwear. Has a very young look.


  • Domett Flannel

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Plain and twill
Characteristics : Also spelled domet. Generally made in white. Has a longer nap than on flannelette. Soft filling yarns of medium or light weight are used to obtain the nap. The term domett is interchangeable with “outing flannel” but it is only made in a plain weave. Both are soft and fleecy and won’t irritate the skin. Any sizing or starching must be removed before using. Outing flannel is also piece-dyed and some printed and produced in a spun rayon also.
Uses : Mostly used for infants wear, interlinings, polished cloths.


  • Pique

Fibre: Cotton, rayon, synthetics.
Weave: Lengthwise rib, English crosswise rib or cord weave.
Characteristics: Originally was a crosswise rib but now mostly a lenghtwise rib and the same as bedford cord. Ribs are often filled to give a more pronounced wale (cord weave). Comes in medium to heavy weights. It is generally made of combed face yarns and carded stuffer yarns. It is durable and launders well. Wrinkles badly unless given a wrinkle-free finish. Various prices. Also comes in different patterns besides wales. The small figured motifs are called cloque. Some of the patterns are birdseye (small diamond), waffle (small squares). honeycomb (like the design on honeycomb honey). When the fabric begins to wear out it wears at the corded areas first.
Uses : Trims, collars, cuffs, millinery, infants wear, particularly coats, and bonnets, women’s and children’s summer dresses, skirts and blouses, shirts, playclothes, and evening gowns.

  • Plisse

Fibre : Cotton, rayon, and others.
Weave : Plain
Characteristics : Could be made from any fine material, e.g. organdy, lawn, etc. Treated with caustic soda solution which shrinks parts of the goods either all
over or in stripes giving a blistered effect. Similar to seersucker in appearance. This crinkle may or may not be removed after washing. This depends on the quality of the fabric. It does not need to be ironed, but if a double thickness, such as a hem needs a little, it should be done after the fabric is thoroughly dry.
Uses : Sleepwear, housecoats, dresses, blouses for women and children, curtains, bedspreads, and bassinettes. Often it is called wrinkle crepe and may be made with a wax/shrink process (the waxed parts remain free of shrinkage and cause the ripples).


  • Point d’esprit

Fibre : Cotton – some in silk.
Weave : Leno, gauze, knotted, or mesh.
Characteristics : First made in France in 1834. Dull surfaced net with various sized holes. Has white or coloured dots individually spaced or in groups.
Uses : Curtains, bassinettes, evening gowns


  • Poplin

Fibre : Cotton, wool, and other textile fibres.
Weave : Crosswise rib. The filling is cylindrical. Two or three times as many warp as weft per inch.
Characteristics : Has a more pronounced filling effect than broadcloth. It is mercerized and has quite a high lustre. It may be bleached, or dyed (usually vat dyes are used) or printed. Heavy poplin is given a water-repellent finish for outdoor use. Originally made with silk warp and a heavier wool filling. Some also mildew-proof, fire-retardant, and some given a suede finish. American cotton broadcloth shirting is known as poplin in Great Britain.
Uses : Sportswear of all kinds, shirts, boy’s suits, uniforms, draperies, blouses, dresses.


  • Sailcloth

Fibre : Cotton, linen, nylon.
Weave : Plain, some made with a crosswise rib.
Characteristics : A strong canvas or duck. The weights vary, but most often the count is around 148×60. Able to withstand the elements (rain, wind and snow). Sailcloth for clothing is sold frequently and is much lighter weight than used for sails.
Uses : Sails, awnings, and all kinds of sportswear for men, women, and children.


  • Sateen

Fibre : Cotton, some also made in rayon.
Weave : Sateen, 5-harness, filling-face weave.
Characteristics : Lustrous and smooth with the sheen in a filling direction. Carded or combed yarns are used. Better qualities are mercerized to give a higher sheen. Some are only calendered to produce the sheen but this disappears with washing and is not considered genuine sateen. May be bleached, dyed, or printed. Difficult to make good bound buttonholes on it as it has a tendency to slip at the seams.
Uses : Dresses, sportswear, blouses, robes, pyjamas, linings for draperies, bedspreads, slip covers.


  • Seersucker

Fibre : Cotton, rayon, synthetics.
Weave : Plain, slack tension weave.
Characteristics : Term derived from the Persian “shirushaker”, a kind of cloth, literally “milk and sugar”. Crepe-stripe effect. Coloured stripes are often used. Dull surface. Comes in medium to heavy weights. the woven crinkle is produced by alternating slack and tight yarns in the warp. This is permanent. Some may be produced by pressing or chemicals, which is not likely to be permanent – called plisse. Durable, gives good service and wear. May be laundered without ironing. Can be bleached, yarn dyed, or printed. Some comes in a check effect.
Uses : Summer suits for men, women, and children, coats, uniforms, trims, nightwear, all kinds of sportswear, dresses, blouses, children’s wear of all kinds, curtains, bedspreads, slipcovers.

  • Shantung

Fibre : Cotton, silk, rayon, synthetics.
Weave : Plain.
Characteristics : It is a raw silk made from Tussah silk or silk waste, depending on the quality. It is quite similar to pongee, but has a more irregular surface, heavier, and rougher. Most of the slubs are in the filling direction. Wrinkles quite a bit. Underlining helps to prevent this as well as slipping at the seams. Do not fit too tightly, if long wear is expected. Comes in various weights, colours and also printed.
Uses : Dresses, suits, and coats.


  • Terry cloth

Fibre : Cotton and some linen.
Weave : Pile, also jacquard and dobby combined with pile.
Characteristics : Either all over loops on both sides of the fabric or patterned loops on both sides. Formed with an extra warp yarn. long wearing, easy to launder and requires no ironing. May be bleached, dyed, or printed. Better qualities have a close, firm, underweave, with very close loops. Very absorbent, and the longer the loop, the greater the absorbency. When the pile is only on one side, it is called “Turkish towelling.”
Uses : Towels, beachwear, bathrobes, all kinds of sportswear, children’s wear, slip covers, and draperies.


  • Tiking

Fibre : Cotton
Weave : Usually twill (L2/1 or L3/1), some jacquard, satin, and dobby.
Characteristics : Very tightly woven with more warp than filling yarns. Very sturdy and strong, smooth and lustrous. Usually has white and coloured stripes, but some patterned (floral). Can be made water-repellent, germ resistant, and feather-proof.
Uses : Pillow covers, mattress coverings, upholstering and some sportswear. `Bohemian ticking” has a plain weave, a very high texture, and is featherproof. Lighter weight than regular ticking. Patterned with narrow coloured striped on a white background or may have a chambray effect by using a white or unbleached warp with a blue or red filling.

Digg This

Simple Spot Designs

Designs in which the ornament consists chiefly of small, detached spots or figures are employed and where elaborate figure ornamentation is not desired. Spotted effects are produced in cloths in different ways—e.g., by employing fancy threads in which spots of contrasting color occur at intervals, and by introducing extra warp or extra weft threads which are brought to the surface where the spots are formed. In the following, however, only the system of producing spot figures is considered in which the spots are formed by floating the ordinary weft or warp threads on the surface of the cloth in an order that is in contrast with the interlacing in the ground. The figures show most prominently when the warp and weft threads are in different colors or materials; but if the two series of threads are alike the difference in the reflection of the light from the different weave surface is sufficient to render the figures clearly visible. Other things being equal, the weft usually forms brighter and clearer spots than the warp: (1) because it is more lustrous and bulky
on account of containing less twist; and (2) because cloths generally contract more in width than in length, the weft thus being brought more prominently to the surface than the warp.

Methods of drafting spot figures

Simple spot figures are readily designed directly upon point paper, and the outline may be first lightly indicated in pencil, as represented at A. The squares are then filled in along the outline, as indicated at B, and this is followed by painting the figure solid, as shown at C. If the ground weave is plain, in painting the outline, the moves should be in odd number of squares, as shown at D, in order that the edge of the figure will fit correctly with the plain marks. If only short floats are required in the figure a simple weave (e.g., a twill or sateen) may be inserted upon it in a color of paint that is in contrast with the first color as represented by the blanks E. On the other hand, the binding marks may be inserted in such a manner as to give a special appearance to the figure as indicated at F. The prominence of the figure is usually reduced about in proportion to the firmness of the binding weave, but, as a rule, a float longer than 0.5 cm should not be made or the structure will be too loose.

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Spot figures which are rather intricate may be sketched upon plain paper and then be drafted upon design paper in the manner illustrated at I, J, and K.


Distribution of spot figures

It is only in special cases, when a spot is arranged to fit in the cell of a colored check, that a figure is used only once in the repeat of a design. Generally, two or more figures are contained in the repeat, and it is necessary for them to be placed at a suitable distance apart, and evenly distributed over the repeat area. The repeat must be at least so large that
the figures do not encroach upon each other, and the factors which influence the number of ends and picks in a repeat are as follows:

(a) The size and shape of the figure;

(b) the number of figures;

(c) the amount of ground space required;

(d) the number of threads in the repeat of the ground weave. Even distribution of the figures is secured by employing a simple weave—such as plain and certain sateens—as the basis of the arrangement.


A method of distributing figures upon design paper, that will be found applicable to any shape of figure, is illustrated, which shows the spot L arranged in the order of the 5-sateen base given at M upon 30 ends and 40 picks. As shown at N, the figure is first painted in near the bottom left-hand corner of the sheet of point paper, and the square which is nearest its centre is marked, as indicated by the cross on the fifth end and sixth pick. From the marked end and pick the repeat is divided in both directions into as many parts as figures to be used—in this case five; and lines are lightly ruled in pencil on the spaces, as represented by the shaded lines in N. It will be seen that the vertical lines occur at intervals of six ends and the horizontal lines at intervals of eight picks to correspond with the division into five parts each way of the repeat of 30 ends and 40 picks. Then, as indicated by the rosses in N, the squares where the divisional lines intersect are marked in the order of the sateen base. The final stage in designing the figures consists of copying the first spot square by square in the same relative position to each centre mark, as shown at O.


In the plain weave basis the figures are arranged in alternate order, as shown in the example given and the corresponding design indicated at A. In this case, as there are two figures in the repeat, the number of ends and picks in he design are divided into two parts from the eighth end and pick which form the centre of the first spot.

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Theory and calculation of cover factor


The figure shows projected views of two woven cloths of different construction. At A the warp and the weft threads cover the area of the cloth only partially, but at B the cloth area is covered completely with no spaces left between the adjacent warp yarns, and it will be seen that the relative closeness of yarns in a woven cloth is dependent upon the ratio of yarn diameter, d, to yarn spacing, p. This ratio known as relative cover, can be defined as the proportion of a projected view of a given area of cloth which is covered by threads, and will have a scale from 0 to 1, although it may also be expressed as percentage cover with a scale from 0 to 100 per cent.

d/p = relative cover,
(d x 100)/p = percentage cover

It is preferable to express warp and weft relative cover separately, as the cumulative value of cloth cover does not indicate the comparative importance of each set of yarns which is essential for the determination of certain cloth characteristics.

From the relationship shown above it will be obvious that if d= p. the value of relative cover is one, and this is regarded as the theoretical maximum cover. In practice, however, this value can be exceeded  considerably in any one direction, either through yarn distortion, or, by forcing the threads into different planes, especially if the relative cover of the opposite set of threads is reduced correspondingly.
The relative cover for one thread system can be calculated as follows by considering an area of 100 x 100mm:

Area per thread = 100 x d
Area covered by n threads of one system = n x 100 x d
Therefore, relative cover = (n x 100 x d)/(100 x 100) = (n x d)/100

Example: The cloth represented at A is specified as follows: Warp — 25 tex cotton, 267 ends/100 mm; weft—36 tex cotton, 334 picks/100 mm. Find the relative warp and weft cover. (Subscript 1 refers to warp, subscript 2 to weft.)

Warp relative cover = (n1 x d1)/100
= (267 x (25)/(26.7))/100
= 0.50

Weft relative cover = (n2 x d2)/100
= (334 x (36)/(26.7))/100
= 0.75

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Bedford cord is the class of weaves produces the longitudinal warp lines in the cloth with fine sunken lines between.

The Bedford cord named after the town of Bedford in England. It is a heavy fabric with a length wise ribbed weave that reassembled corduroy.


· At interval pair of ends work in perfectly plain order with the picks, therefore these lifts are first indicated


· The number of ends between the pair of plain end being varied according to the width of cord required.

· The next stage is consist of inserting marks (which indicating warp float) on the first and second picks of alternate cords and on the third and fourth picks of the other cords.


· The object of arranging the marks of the cord ends in alternate order is chiefly to equalize the lift of the ends.

· The designs are completed by inserting plain weave on the cord ends, which join with the plain working of the pair of ends.



· The cord ends float over three picks and under one while the picks float in pairs on the back of one cord and interweave in plain order in the next cord.



· The usual order of drafting is shown here

· The plain ends are being drawn on the healds of front and accordingly the lifting plan is maid.


· In order to fully develop the sunken lines the plain should be separated by the slits of the reed


· In some cases however the plain ends are dented accordingly to the type of fineness required.


· Sometimes the plain ends are woven two per slit and cord ends are three or four per slit. The number of ends in the width of a cord has some influence upon the order of denting.


This structure contain thick wadding or padding ends which lie between the rib face cloth and the weft floats on the undersides the arrangement to give grater prominence to the cord.


· First we decide the place at which the wadding ends are introduced


· The wadding ends are raised where the picks floats at the back shown in design and are left down where the picks interweave in plain order.


· In order of interlacement of the picks and position of warps is shown here


· Here the drawing (drafting) is done in same maner as before only after plain order healdshafts. The wadding ends are drawn and then the cord ends.


· Here while denting is done, like 2 ends per slit the wadding ends being dented extra


· The number of wadding ends to each cord may be varied according to requirement.


· The design may be arranged with an odd number of each (not including the wadding ends) to each cord but it is then necessary to reserve the marks of an alternate pairs of the plain ends in order that the plain weave will join correctly.

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· Face warp= 30’s Cotton, 108 Ends per inch

· Wadding warp= 2/20’s cotton

· Weft = 36’s cotton, 84 picks per inch


· It is an another modification of Bedford cord structure consist of the using warp twill instead of plain weave for the picks which inter weave on the face of the cord stripes.

· Thus the warp being brought more prominently on surface.

· The construction is same like a plain face but the introduction of twill weave in place of plain is take place.




· The structure is formed due to the occurrence of force variations in structure.

· The plain order is highly compact structure here end 6-7 will force the yarn downward due to the plain order.

· And the other region contain plain or twill order with the warp floats which will not force but allow the other ends to move up.

· And this variation of force form the force forms the cord.




· Bedford cord are also made with alternate picks floating at the back, in which case the pairs of plain ends require to be indicated in the reverse order.

· Here we take an example of 10 end wide cord first the marks of the pairs of plain ends are indicated


· Then the marks which cut with plain marks are inserted on the alternate horizontal spaces.


· Afterwards plain weave is inserted on the blank horizontal spaces of the cords as indicated


· But in this case plain does not join perfectly with the plain marks of the pair of ends

· Wadding ends also may introduce according to the requirement, this wadding ends are shown raised over the picks which floats at the back.



· Fabric produced with these weave may be made in medium weight cotton or spun rayon fabrics for Dress wear, Sports-wear and ornamental trimming.

· In heavier qualities, It is suitable for Soft furnishing when produced with cotton yarns or for Suiting when made up of worsted yarns.

· Also used for shirting, coating, upholstery, uniforms etc.

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Diamond and Diapers

These Designs, from the point of view of their construction, can be regarded as the further development of twill weave.


Those that are symmetrical about their vertical and horizontal axes which can be produced with the aid of point draft and vertical waved twilled peg-plan.


Those that are symmetrical about their diagonal axes, these are based on herringbone draft and vertical waved twilled peg-plan.

Ø Diamond is constructed on wavy twill while Diaper is constructed on herringbone twill.


Principle of Construction:

True diamond shapes converge into a vertex and for this reason most designs of this type can be constructed economically on the point draft basis. The structure may be developed in following two ways:

1. By employing a vertical waved twill or zigzag as the lifting plan in conjunction with the point draft.


By indicating a diamond base and building up the design symmetrically on each side of the centre thread.


· While this represents the same twill arrange to zigzag vertically.

· Two such repeats are given in each direction.

First method is most commonly employed to produce economical diamonds.


This class of weave will form cut effect or dice effect with the implementation of herringbone twill. This effect is used in ornamentation, shirting, etc.

Principle of Construction:

Ø The simplest weaves of this type are produced as a further development of the herringbone twill, in which the principle of opposing a warp float on the one side of the design by a weft float on the other is extended in both directions, i.e. horizontally and vertically.

Ø In this manner a design is formed in which the typical herringbone cut splits the design into four quarters, the diagonally opposite caters being similar.

Ø These structures are frequently employed as they are capable of forming large design repeats with considerable economy in the number of heald to be used.


v Diapers can also be constructed on the herringbone draft basis provided that the twills from which they were originated fall into a certain specific category the characteristic of such twills are:-

o They are even sided

o Their repeat splits in two halves each of which is symmetrical within itself.

o The lifts in each of the two halves are diametrically opposite

v Even sided twill containing more than two lines of float which do not split in the manner indicae than two lines of float which do not split in the mannner self.

v twills from which they were originated falll ted above cannot be woven with the economical herring bone draft.

v Warp and weft faced twills can also be used to produce diapers on the herring bone reversal but owing to the very prominent quartering of the repeat a distinct check effect is produced and for this reason, such effects are frequently termed as “dice checks”.

v In additional to the herring bone based diapers many other diaper forms can be constructed without a preconceived base.


Diamond weave Diaper weave
It looks like a diamond It looks like a dice checks
It can be formed by two methods

o Baseline

o Wavy twill

It can be formed by using herring bone twill
Diamond is asymmetrical on both vertically and horizontally. It is only diagonally similar.
This is used for dress material and furnishing fabrics. This is used for dress materials.
This weave is produced with point draft It is not produced with point draft.
Diamond made from 3/3.1/2 Horizontal Waved Twill & Point Draft


Diamond made from 3/3.1/2 Horizontal Waved Twill & Point Draft



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