Effective Colour Management for Textile Coloration- An instrumental way towards perfection

by:-   Zeeshan Khatri, G Yasin Sheikh, Khan Muhammad Brohi and Aslam A Uqaili

Textile coloration is a process of dyeing and printing textiles by use of colorants that include dyes and pigments. Meeting stringent requirement from Buyer that demands right colour on right time is not a simple task to achieve. The colour produced by the application of either dyes or pigments on textiles must be close matched with reference (standard) provided by buyer. The process of colour matching is a lengthy process and needs many trials to get close match. The colour quantification through instruments helps to cut most of the lead time, however, there is a serious need to manage colour during colour approval stage and coloration process. This paper presents a strategy towards effective colour management by using available instruments and techniques that involve in colour measurement and management systems, trips to control colour intelligently and give way to get closer match to the buyer’s reference in a shortest possible time.

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By: – T.Sureshram
Junior Scientific Officer, Department of Textile Physics,
The South India Textile Research Association, Coimbatore-14

Combination of textile technology and medical sciences has resulted into a new field called medical textiles. Medical textiles are one of the most rapidly expanding sectors in the technical textile market. Textile materials in the medical textile field gradually have taken on more important roles. The wide range of textile products used in the medical industry are classified in to four major segments namely non-implantable materials, implantable materials, extracorporeal devices and healthcare & hygiene products. This paper deals with the specifications/properties required and different types of test methods involved for evaluating the characteristics of the medical textile products.

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Testing Specification

Using the Physics of Acoustics to Reduce Weight in Cars

As automotive manufacturers continue to push for improved fuel consumption and lower carbon emissions, they are squeezing every single gram of weight out of every single part that goes into a car.  Meanwhile, however, the pressure to save money and create a smoother, quieter driver experience is also increasing. Greensboro, North Carolina headquartered Precision Fabrics Group, has commercialized a unique nonwoven fabric called Nexus AFR which helps solve the car makers need to improve acoustics and reduce weight without breaking the bank. Physics of acoustics The Precision Fabrics solution is based on the ‘physics of acoustics’ and the science focuses on two dominant properties in part design – thickness and resistance to airflow.  Because sound moves through air in waves of minute pressure variations, the solution has to work for long wavelengths (low frequency) and for short wavelengths (high frequency). The frequency of sound, the wavelength of sound, and the speed of sound are related The thickness of the existing insulation layer is important and determines what low frequency wavelengths can be absorbed.  The new Nexus AFR nonwoven material replaces the traditional black scrim on the surface and controls the mid and high frequency wavelength by managing the sound pressure level variations and ‘trapping’ the energy in the insulation layer of the part.  This makes the composite more efficient than just the Homogeneous insulation material by itself.

Advantages over traditional homogeneous insulation

According to Precision Fabrics’ Richard Bliton, this two material approach has many advantages over the traditional homogeneous insulation, one material approach. “Traditional black scrim – the commodity black scrim used in the auto industry is a descendent of the fabric interlining and lining materials.  The typical nonwoven manufacturing technology is a chembond or thermalbond technology,” explains Bliton. Low cost fibres are carded and oriented primarily in the machine direction and a chemical spray or waterfall coats the web and it is compressed and dried.  The web then has a hot melt adhesive powder sprinkled on the face which is to be reactivated during on processing.  Properties such as FR or repellency can be added to the waterfall treatment. “The strength of this type of web is low compared to other nonwoven structures, but the prime advantage is that it is low cost.   Most of the purchasing specifications for this type of material only specify- fabric basis weight, colour, width, and amount of adhesive.  Acoustic characteristics such as Rayls are not controlled, tested or reported,” Bliton continues. An example, Bliton says, is an automotive hood liner.  A traditional design would have a 30 gsm black nonwoven scrim on the back (B) side, 1600gsm resonated fibreglass about 10mm thick as the insulation layer and a 50 gsm black scrim on the front (A) side. A recently launched next generation hood liner with Nexus AFR was made up of 30 gsm B side, 600 gsm Fiberglass insulation 10mm thick and 100 gsm Nexus AFR on the face.  The weight reduction is 950  grams/m² which is more than 2 lbs/m². In this particular case, the acoustics stayed the same and there was cost reductions generated in the raw material line, and additional improvements in manufacturing related to shorter cycle times required to mould a 600 gsm fibre glass part as compared to a 1600 gsm part. Alpha Cabin Random Incidence Sound Absorption

Automotive industry quick to adopt solution

According to Precision Fabrics Group, the automotive industry is moving quickly to implement this new approach. Parts using the AFR nonwoven are commercial in 10 platforms within 5 OEMs and one major OEM has adopted the low density fibreglass with AFR facing design approach as a worldwide corporate best practice. The focus on reducing weight and cost is one of the drivers for the adoption of the new material, but in some cases a vehicle may have a sound problem that has to be solved.  In these cases, the company says, a properly selected AFR facing can significantly improve that acoustic absorption of the part. The physics based solution offers the acoustic engineer some flexibility to tailor the part to focus the acoustic absorption on mid to high frequency ranges. “Some of the commercial parts on the road are last minute ‘fixes’ to acoustic problems found during pre-launch road tests.   The switch to an AFR facing is an easy change for a part manufacturer and an OEM to make,” Rich Bliton adds. The new fabric meets or exceeds all of the fabric specifications that are in place, the modified part can be made on the same tooling and the improved part will have the same fit as before. “The design approach to build a part with low density material for thickness and an acoustically tuned fabric facing for impedance as opposed to the traditional parts where performance was defined by the weight/thickness of the insulation is a new paradigm.  The science can be applied all types of insulation materials. Each situation will have to be tuned and validated, but early feedback is generating 30-40% weight reductions without loss of acoustic absorption performance,” Bliton concludes.

About Precision Fabrics Group

Precision Fabrics manufactures, markets and sells value-added products and services to selected, highly specified markets. The company’s high-performance products play a key role in several diverse markets, which demand engineered, finished fabrics, the common thread amongst which is  the technical nature of their requirements. Precision Fabrics was the first ISO-qualified textile supplier in the USA. – and ISO continues to provide the discipline and framework for effective and efficient product development, customer service, and manufacturing. Precision Fabrics has been ISO-registered to 9001 since 1993 and upgraded to 9001-2008 in October 2009. Precision Fabrics was created in 1988 via a leveraged buyout from Burlington Industries and continues as a privately-held company today. The company has evolved from a traditional textile company into an engineered materials business, focused on highly technical, high-quality woven and nonwoven fabrics. Today, Precision Fabrics employs approximately 600 people and operates plants in North Carolina, Virginia and Tennessee. Corporate headquarters are located in Greensboro, North Carolina and sales offices are maintained in Greensboro and in Bamberg, Germany. Precision’s Vinton, VA, Plant specializes in weaving some of the most technically challenging continuous-filament fabrics in the world. The Greensboro and Madison facilities are world-class in the range of nonwoven products that they produce.   Ref: http://www.innovationintextiles.com/using-the-physics-of-acoustics-to-reduce-weight-in-cars/


Bandage (Photo credit: Wikipedia)




Although compression therapy is a key factor in the  successful treatment of some circulatory problems in lower limbs, this form of therapy includes some risks if used inappropriately. Based on deliberate application of pressure to a lower limb, using a variety of textile materials, elastic or rigid in order to produce a desired clinical effects,  modern compression therapy presents a good sample of successful penetration of textile technology into the phlebology field of medicine. However, although compression therapy has been in use for over 150 years, there exists a low awareness among practitioners and patients on the product usage, application techniques and benefit of appropriate selection of bandages for determined types of leg venous diseases. Also, not all manufacturers for compression textile materials seem to be conscious of end-users need. simultaneously, impressive developments in the field of elastic fibers and modern knitting and weaving technologies, offer chances for realization of completely new types of compressed bandages, capable of making an important contribution to the management of venous disease. In this review, starting from brief account of pathogenesis and the presentation of compression therapy principle, an account of the contribution of all sectors in the textile technology chain to a modern compression therapy is given.


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contribution of TT to the development of modern compression bandages






As a skilled designer, architect, specifier, facility manager or enduser, it is important to make informed decisions when specifying carpets for a project in order to create a visually pleasing and long-lasting interior environment.

The purpose of this handbook is to provide you with the fundamentals of how carpets are made, specified, installed and maintained. In addition, aspects such as indoor climate benefits and issues related to environmental management are presented – all the basic information needed to make informed carpet decisions.

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 Havva Halaceli

Cukurova University, Faculty of Fine Arts, Department of Textile Design,
Adana, Turkey

This is a digital age, dominated by information, communication and technology-based entertainment. This age is a result of rapid visual information-sharing. In this age, technology enables video sharing, saving every moment as visual data, and it is a result of rapid visual and information sharing. Today, artists use digital technologies as a means of expressing concepts. Woven textiles are also affected by the technological advances. Textiles have been essential for people from ancient times to now, for covering and protecting themselves from heat and cold. Weaving is a fine art form and a product of labor, including Coptic textiles and European tapestries; it can also utilize the speed, selection and color options of digital technologies that result from the mechanization and technological advances in the 20th century. Computerized Jacquard looms are one of the benefits of digital technologies that enable the weaving of complex imagery by allowing individual warp threads to be lifted.

Today, working with digital cameras, scanners and jacquard looms the textile artist becomes a designer and technology becomes a medium serving the artist’s creativity. In this study, the works of textile artists will be examined in view of time, technology and communication.
Keywords: Weaving, digital technology, jacquard loom

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Basic Textile Care: Structure, Storage, and Display

Textiles have been used in various human endeavors for thousands of years and have the potential to be highly symbolic and culturally important. This is especially true in the United States where even mundane textiles such as handkerchiefs and bandannas have held political and cultural significance (Collins, 1979). Due to this intimate link with historical events, items such as flags, campaign banners and bandannas, pennants, and other flat textiles stand a reasonable chance of being included in library, archive, or museum collections.

Ideally, a textile conservator should be consulted in the care and repair of a historic textile; however, this is not always immediately possible because of budgetary concerns or a lack of local or in-house specialists. In some cases, the cost of a conservator’s services may greatly exceed the monetary value of the piece (Finch and Putnam, 1985). When professional repair services are unavailable or impractical, preservation should be the focus as “the first and safest line of defense against all the causes and some of the effects of deterioration” (ibid. p. 9). To this end, this paper offers a brief overview of the structure, storage, and display of flat textiles for libraries,
archives, museums, and private collectors who may not have much experience in textile care and who lack immediate access to professional textile conservation.

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Basic Textile Care: Structure, Storage, and Display


Olefin fibers, also called polyolefin fibers, are defined as manufactured fibers in which the fiber-forming substance is a synthetic  polymer of at least 85 wt% ethylene, propylene, or other olefin units (1). Several olefin polymers are capable of forming fibers, but only polypropylene [9003-07-0] (PP) and, to a much lesser extent, polyethylene [9002-88-4] (PE) are of practical importance. Olefin polymers are hydrophobic and resistant to most solvents. These properties impart resistance to staining but cause the polymers to be essentially undyeable in an unmodified form.

The first commercial application of olefin fibers was for automobile seat covers in the late 1940s. These fibers, made from low density polyethylene (LDPE) by melt extrusion, were not very successful. They lacked dimensional stability, abrasion resistance, resilience, and light stability. The success of olefin fibers began when high density polyethylene (HDPE) was introduced in the late 1950s. Yarns made from this highly crystalline, linear polyethylene have higher tenacity than yarns made from the less crystalline. Markets were developed for HDPE fiber in marine rope where water resistance and buoyancy are important. However, the fibers also possess a low melting point, lack resilience, and have poor light stability. These traits caused the polyethylene fibers to have limited applications.

Isotactic polypropylene, based on the stereospecific polymerization catalysts discovered by Ziegler and Natta,was introduced commercially in the United States in 1957. Commercial polypropylene fibers followed in 1961. The first market of significance, contract carpet, was based on a three-ply, crimper-textured yarn. It competed favorably against wool and rayon–wool blends because of its lighter  weight, longer wear, and lower cost. In the mid-1960s, the discovery of improved light stabilizers led to the development of outdoor carpeting based on polypropylene.

In 1967, woven carpet backing based on a film warp and fine-filament fill was produced. In the early 1970s, a bulked-continuous-filament (BCF) yarn was introduced for woven, texturized upholstery. In the mid-1970s, further improvement in light stabilization of polypropylene led to a staple product for automotive interiors and nonwoven velours for floor and wall carpet tiles. In the early 1980s, polypropylene was introduced as a fine-filament staple for thermal bonded nonwovens.

The growth of polyolefin fibers continues. Advances in olefin polymerization provide a wide range of polymer properties to the fiber producer. Inroads into new markets are being made through improvements in stabilization, and new and improved methods of extrusion and production, including multicomponent extrusion and spunbonded and meltblown nonwovens.

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Olefin Fibers

Electronic autoleveller in Spinning

Electronic autoleveller is used for achieving an automatic adjustment with two different criteria of speed variation:

  • feed rate variation, for all autolevelling standard applications
  • • variation of the delivery speed when the machine requires steady feed rate like in case of linkage with other machines with the same throughput speed (for example, in the after-card drawframe combined with a set of cards).

image The first system, previously analysed, is most frequently used in this process stage. Its operation is schematised in Figure: a mechanic feeler detects the thickness of the material fed, the variations are transformed into electric signals and sent to a control unit which, with a suitable delay corresponding to the passage of the material from the feeler to the drawframe, determines the variation of the feed rate and therefore of the draft. The electronic autoleveller does not set definite limits to the possibility of adjustment but in relation to the correct detection and to the speed limit of the intersecting comb head, the suitable adjusting range applicable varies between – 25% and + 25%. It is also possible to store the maximum and minimum drawing limits beyond which the machine no longer complies with the technological operating conditions allowed for each material.

ELECTRONIC TEXTILES: Wearable Computers, Reactive Fashion and Soft computation

Electronic textiles, also referred to as smart fabrics, are quite fashionable right now. Their close relationship with the field of computer wearable‘s gives us many diverging research directions and possible definitions. On one end of the spectrum, there are pragmatic applications such as military research into interactive camouflage or textiles that can heal wounded soldiers. On the other end of the spectrum, work is being done by artists and designers in the area of reactive clothes: “second skins” that can adapt to the environment and to the individual. Fashion, health, and telecommunication industries are also pursuing the vision of clothing that can express aspects of people’s personalities,social dynamics through the use and display of aggregate social information.

In my current production-based research, I develop enabling technology for electronic textiles based upon my theoretical evaluation of the historical and cultural modalities of textiles as they relate to future computational forms. My work involves the use of conductive yarns and fibers for power delivery, communication, and networking, as well as new materials for display that use electronic ink, nitinol, and thermochromic pigments. The textiles are created using traditional textile manufacturing techniques: spinning conductive yarns, weaving, knitting, embroidering, sewing, and printing with inks.


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