A number of methods are available for characterization of the structural, physical, and chemical properties of fibers. The major methods available are outlined in this chapter, including a brief description of each method and the nature of characterization that the method provides.
Optical and Electron Microscopy
Optical microscopy (OM) has been used for many years as a reliable method to determine the gross morphology of a fiber in longitudinal, as well as cross-sectional views. Mounting the fiber on a slide wetted with a liquid of appropriate refractive properties has been used to minimize light scattering effects. The presence of gross morphological characteristics such as fiber shape and size and the nature of the surface can be readily detected. Magnifications as high as 1,500X are possible, although less depth of field exists at higher magnifications. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) can be used to view the morphology of fibers with good depth of field and resolution at magnifications up to 10,000X. In scanning electron microscopy, the fiber must first be coated with a thin film of a conducting metal such as silver or gold. The mounted specimen then is scanned with an electron beam, and back-scattered particles emitted from the fiber surface are detected and analyzed to form an image of the fiber. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is more specialized and more difficult to perform than SEM. It measures the net density of electrons passing through the thin cross sections of metal-coated fibers and provides a method to look at their micro-morphologies.
Elemental and End-Group Analysis
The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical elements and groups in a fiber may aid in identification and characterization of a fiber. Care must be taken in analysis of such data, since the presence of dyes or finishes on the fibers may affect the nature and content of elements and end groups found in a given fiber. Gravimetric and instrumental chemical methods are available for analysis of specific elements or groups of elements in fibers. Specific chemical analyses of functional groups and end groups in 26 Tufted Carpet
organic polymers that make up fibers may be carried out. For example, analyses of amino acids in protein fibers, amino groups in polyamides and proteins, and acid groups in polyamides and polyesters aid in structure determination, molecular characterization, and identification of fibers.
Infrared spectroscopy is a valuable tool in determination of functional groups within a fiber. Functional groups in a polymer absorb infrared energy at wavelengths characteristic of the particular group and lead to changes in the vibrational modes within the functional group. As a result of the infrared absorption characteristics of the fiber, specific functional groups can be identified. Infrared spectroscopy of fibers can be carried out on the finely divided fiber segments pressed in a salt pellet, or through the use of reflectance techniques. Functional groups in dyes and finishes also can be detected by this technique.
The ultraviolet-visible spectra of fibers, dyes, and finishes can provide clues concerning the structure of these materials, as well as show the nature of electronic transitions that occur within the material as light is absorbed at various wavelengths by unsaturated groups giving an electronically- excited molecule. The absorbed energy is either harmlessly dissipated as heat, fluorescence, or phosphorescence, or causes chemical reactions to occur that modify the chemical structure of the fiber. Ultraviolet-visible spectra can be measured for a material either in solution or by reflectance. Reflectance spectra are particularly useful in color measurement and assessment of color differences in dyed and bleached fibers.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy measures the relative magnitude and direction (moment) of spin orientation of the nucleus of the individual atoms within a polymer from a fiber in solution in a highintensity magnetic field. The degree of shift of spins within the magnetic field and the signal splitting characteristics of individual atoms such as hydrogen or carbon within the molecule are dependent on the location and nature of Fiber Identification and Characterization the groups surrounding each atom. In this way, the “average” structure of long polymeric chains can be determined. Line width from NMR spectra also can provide information concerning the relationship of crystalline and amorphous areas within the polymer.
X-rays, diffracted from or reflected off crystalline or semicrystalline polymeric materials, give patterns related to the crystalline and amorphous areas within a fiber. The size and shape of individual crystalline and amorphous sites within the fiber are reflected in the geometry and sharpness of the x-ray diffraction pattern and provide an insight into the internal structure of the polymeric chains.
Physical and chemical changes in fibers may be investigated by measuring changes in selected properties as small samples of fiber are
heated at a steady rate over a given temperature range in an inert atmosphere such as nitrogen. There are four thermal characterization methods.
In DTA, small changes in temperature (ΔT) in the fiber sample compared to a reference are detected and recorded as the sample is heated. The changes in temperature (ΔT) are directly related to physical and chemical events occurring within the fiber as it is heated. These events include changes in crystallinity and crystal structure, loss of water, solvents and volatile materials, and melting and decomposition of the fiber. Differential scanning calorimetry is similar to DTA, but measures changes in heat content (ΔH) rather than temperature (ΔT) as the fiber is heated; it provides quantitative data on the thermodynamic processes involved. In an inert gas such as nitrogen, most processes are endothermic (heat absorbing). If DTA or DSC is carried out in air with oxygen, data may be obtained related to the combustion characteristics of the fiber, and fiber decomposition becomes exothermic (heat generating). Thermal radiometric analysis measures changes in mass (ΔΜ) of a sample as the temperature is raised at a uniform rate. It provides information concerning loss of volatile materials, the rate and mode of decomposition of the fiber, and the effect of finishes on fiber
decomposition. Thermal mechanical analysis measures changes in a specific mechanical property as the temperature of the fiber is raised at a uniform rate. A number of specialized mechanical devices have been developed to measure mechanical changes in fibers, including hardness and flow under stress.
Molecular Weight Determination
Molecular weight determination methods provide information concerning the average size and distribution of individual polymer molecules making up a fiber. Molecular weights enable one to calculate the length of the average repeating unit within the polymer chain, better known as the DP. The distribution of polymer chain lengths within the fiber provides information concerning selected polymer properties.
The major molecular weight determination methods include number average molecular weights (M¯ n), determined by end-group analysis, osmometry, cryoscopy, and ebullioscopy; weight average molecular weights (M¯ w), determined by light scattering and ultracentrifugation; and viscosity molecular weights (M¯ v), determined by the flow rate of polymer solutions. Since each method measures the average molecular weight of the polymer differently, the molecular weight values obtained will differ depending on the overall number and distribution of polymer chains of varying lengths present in the fiber. The differences in value between M¯ n and M¯ w provide measures of the breadth of distribution of polymers within the fiber. By definition the distribution of molecular weights for a given polymer will always be M¯ w > M¯ v > M¯ n.
Mechanical and Tensile Property Measurements
Mechanical and tensile measurements for fibers include tenacity or tensile strength, elongation at break, recovery from limited elongation, stiffness (relative force required to bend the fiber), and recovery from bending. The tensile properties of individual fibers or yarns are usually measured on a tensile testing machine such as an Instron®, which subjects fibers or yarns of a given length to a constant rate of force or loading. The force necessary to break the fiber or yarn, or tenacity, is commonly given in grams per denier (g/d) or grams per tex (g/tex), or as kilometer breaking length in the SI system. The elongation to break of a fiber is a measure of the ultimate degree of extension that a fiber can withstand before breaking. The degree of recovery of a fiber from a given elongation is a measure of the resiliency of the fiber to small deformation forces. The stiffness or bendability of a fiber is related to the overall chemical structure of the macromolecules making up the fiber, the forces between adjacent polymer chains, and the degree of crystallinity of the fiber. Mechanical and tensile property measurements can provide valuable insights into the structure of a fiber and its projected performance in end use.
The specific gravity of a fiber is a measure of its density in relation to the density of the same volume of water, and provides a method to relate the mass per unit volume of a given fiber to that of other fibers. The specific gravity relates in some degree to the nature of molecular packing, crystallinity, and molecular alignment in the fiber. Specific gravity of a fiber will give an idea of the relative weight of fabrics of identical fabric structure, but of differing fiber content. End-use properties such as hand (feel or touch), drapability, and appearance are affected by fiber density.
Environmental properties include those physical properties which relate to the environment in which a fiber is found. Moisture regain, solvent solubility, heat conductivity, the physical effect of heat, and electrical properties depend on the environmental conditions surrounding the fiber. The uptake of moisture by a dry fiber at equilibrium will depend on the temperature and relative humidity of the environment. Solvent solubilities of fibers will depend on the solubility parameters of the solvent in relation to fiber structure and crystallinity. Heat conductivity, the physical effect of heating such as melting, softening, and other thermal transitions, and the electrical properties of a fiber depend on the inherent structure of the fiber and the manner in which heat or electrical energy is acted upon by the macromolecules within the fiber. Environmental properties are measured by subjecting the fiber to the appropriate environmental conditions and measuring the property desired under such conditions.
The chemical properties of fibers include the effects of chemical agents like acids, bases, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, and biological agents such as molds and mildews on the fiber, and light- and heat-induced chemical changes within the fiber. Acids and bases cause hydrolytic attack of molecular chains within a fiber, whereas oxidizing and reducing agents cause chemical attack of functional groups through oxidation (removal of electrons) or reduction (addition of electrons). Such chemical attack can change the fiber’s structure and possibly cleave the molecular chains within the fiber. Biological agents such as moths on wool or mildew on cellulose use the fiber as a nutrient for biological growth and, subsequently, cause damage to the fiber structure. Sunlight contains ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light energy. This energy can be absorbed at discrete wavelength ranges by fibers depending on their molecular structure. Ultraviolet and visible light absorbed by a fiber will cause excitation of electrons within the structure, raising them to higher energy states. Shorter ultraviolet wavelengths are the most highly energetic and give the most highly excited states. Visible light usually has little effect on the fiber, although its absorption and reflectance of unabsorbed light will determine the color and reflectance characteristics of the fiber. Infrared energy absorbed will increase the vibration of molecules within the fiber andwill cause heating. The excited species within the fiber can return to their original (ground) state, through dissipation of the energy as molecular vibrations or heat, without significantly affecting the fiber. Ultraviolet and some visible light absorbed by the fiber, however, can lead to molecular scission within the fiber and cause adverse free radical reactions, which will lead to fiber deterioration.
Heating a fiber to progressively higher temperatures in air will lead to physical as well as chemical changes within the fiber. At sufficiently high temperatures, molecular scission, oxidation, and other complex chemical reactions associated with decomposition of the fiber will occur causing possible discoloration and a severe drop in physical and end-use properties for the fiber.