One reason for the existence of the great number of commercial dyes that any textile material may be have to withstand one or more of a wide variety of processes of manufacture and later be subjected to a variety of different types of wear and tear in use. The correct of choice of dye for any given circumstance, in fact, requires considerable knowledge and experience, and nothing more than a bare outline of the underlying principles can be given here. A few typical examples, selected at random, of some of the matters to he considered in making the choice are given below under four main headings:
Many textiles must withstand severe exposure to sunlight or to repeated washing. Thus curtains and fabrics for outer garments must have good fastness to light. And fabrics for awnings and deck chair must withstand sunlight and also rain: knitted wool material should be fast to washing; shirting and handkerchiefs must withstand boiling in soap solution; and so on.
2 Nature of Manufacturing Processes
Cotton fabric having colored threads on a white ground may have to be subjected to boiling, with alkali under pressure (kier boiling) and bleaching after weaving. The first kind of dye chose for bland fabrics should be withstood the dyeing conditions of the second kind of dye.
Apart from the above treatments to which the already dyed materials are subjected, the nature of the dyeing process is important in determining the choice of dye, Thus in the dyeing of fabric only the most level-dyeing dyes can be used, because the slightest inequality in colour in different areas of the cloth would spoil the appearance. If loose fiber is being dyed, however, levelness is of less importance, because any portions of uneven appearance in the mass will be evenly distributed when the fiber is subsequently manufactured into yarn. Again, in using package dyeing machine, which the dye-liquor is pumped through a container packed tight with loose fiber, or through a cake or thick reel
of yarn. it is important for the dye to be either in true solution or present as extremely fine particles.
4 Dyeing Costs
The prices of different dyes are quite different. It is better to choose the economic dyes in Practice if all above mentioned requirements are conformed.
- Classification of Dyes (textlnfo.wordpress.com)