INTRODUCTION TO NONWOVENS
We know that nonwoven fabrics are one of the oldest and simplest textile fabrics. Its classic example is felt. The first well documented discovery of felt dates back 3500-3000 BC. It was made from hairs of various animals. The term “Nonwoven fabrics” was applied to new modern techniques, which were totally based on new principles, by U.S.A. in 1965. “Non woven fabrics” is being defined into different ways by different literatures; the term defined by “Textile oregano” in 1965 is as follows:
“Nonwoven fabrics are products made of parallel laid, cross laid or randomly laid webs bonded with application of adhesive or thermoplastic fibres under application of heat and pressure.”
In other words nonwoven fabric can be simply defined as a fabric those can be produced by a variety of processes other than weaving and knitting.
The nonwoven fabric properties depends on following particulars to an great extent,
1. The choice of fibres.
2. Technology which determines how the fibres are to be arranged.
3. The bonding process and the bonding agent.
Fabric properties of nonwovens range from crisp to that soft-to-the –touch to harsh, impossible-to-tear to extremely weak. This leads to a wide range of end products such as nappies, filters, teabags, geotextiles, etc. some of which are durable and others are disposable.
The first stage in the manufacturing process of nonwoven fabrics is “production of web” and another is “bonding of web by using several methods”. Some of those (binding methods) are felting, adhesive bonding, thermal bonding, stitch bonding, needle punching, hydro-entanglement and spin laying.
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